Many of the science and engineering problems under investiga- tion at industry, government and university laboratories come under the headings "energy, materials and resources." X-ray analysis plays a key role in these investigations. This is reflected in the content of the present volume of Advances in X-ray Analysis. Nearly half of the papers come under such headings as energy production and conversion, materials optimization and mineral characterization. The remainder continue the long tradition of this series in pre- senting the latest advances in apparatus and procedures for x-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses. In keeping with recent practice, this year's Denver Conference on Applications of X-ray Analysis emphasized x-ray diffraction and was co-sponsored by JCPDS, International Center for Diffraction Data. The first group of papers in this volume were presented in a plenary session on unusual specimen preparation, handling and analy- ses by x-ray diffraction. In the lead paper, D. K. Smith and C. S.
Barrett combine their seven decades of experience with surveys of diffractionists throughout the world to present a comprehensive re- view of non-routine specimen preparation in powder diffractometry. Next, M. J. Camp discusses the particular procedures and constraints under which foresnic laboratories employ diffraction methods. F. A. Mauer and C. R. Robbins discuss a method for characteri- zation of high temperature-pressure reactions in situ by energy dis- persive x-ray diffraction that offers the promise of sorting out the mechanisms underlying materials compatibility and durability.
Special Techniques in Powder Diffraction.- Special Handling Problems in X-Ray Diffractometry.- Special Problems in Forensic Materials Analysis by XRD.- X-Ray Powder Diffraction Measurements in Reactive Atmospheres at 1000 C and 7 MPa (1000 psig).- X-Ray Diffraction of Radioactive Materials.- Characterization of Thin Films by X-Ray Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis.- Characterization of Laterites By X-Ray Techniques.- Minimization of Preferred Orientation in Powders by Spray Drying.- Low Temperature X-Ray Diffractometer with Closed Cycle Refrigeration System.- X-Ray Powder Diffraction of Einsteinium Compounds.- Evaluation of XRD Patterns.- Identification of Multiphase Unknowns by Computer Methods: Role of Chemical Information, the Quality of X-Ray Powder Data and Subfiles.- The Control and Processing of Data from an Automated X-Ray Powder Diffractometer.- A Preliminary Report on the Design and Results of the Second Round Robin to Evaluate Search/Match Methods for Qualitative Powder Diffractometry.- Application of Guinier Camera, Microcomputer Controlled Film Densitometry, and Pattern Search-Match Procedures to Rapid Routine X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis.- Computer Automation of X-Ray Powder Diffraction.- A Microcomputer Controlled Diffractometer.- Applications of XRD.- X-Ray Powder Diffraction Investigation of the Monumental Stone of the Castel dell'ovo, Naples, Italy.- Quantitative Phase Analysis of Devonian Shales by Computer Controlled X-Ray Diffraction of Spray Dried Samples.- X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Stabilities of Zeolites to Temperature Changes and Solution Treatment.- Applications of the Gandolfi X-Ray Camera in Minerals Industry Research.- Instrumental Techniques for the Analysis of Paper Fillers and Pigments.- Investigations of Detection Threshold Variation and Microcrystallite Nucleation in Nuclear Track Detectors Using Small Angle X-Ray Analysis.- Application of Microbeam X-Ray Techniques to the Evaluation of The Plastic Zone Size of Fatigued Steels.- Residual Stress at Fatigue Fracture Surface of Heat Treated High Strength Steels.- Study on X-Ray Stress Analysis Using a New Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter.- Comparison of Stress Measurements by X-Rays with Three Different Detectors and a Strongly Fluorescing Specimen.- Use of Cr K-Beta X-Rays and Position Sensitive Detector for Residual Stress Measurement in Stainless Steel Pipe (Note).- Instrumentation and Laser Sources.- A Diffractometer Based Energy Dispersive Elemental Analyser (Note).- A New Method for Fast XRPD Using A Position Sensitive Detector.- Laser-Produced Plasmas as an Alternative X-Ray Source for Synchrotron Radiation Research and for Microradiography.- Mathematical Data Analysis for XRF.- A Review of Empirical Influence Coefficient Methods in X-Ray Spectrometry.- Quasi-Fundamental Correction Methods Using Broadband X-Ray Excitation.- Progress in X-Ray Fluorescence Correction Methods Using Scattered Radiation.- Development of the Detector Response Function Approach for the Library Least-Squares Analysis of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra.- X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Stainless Steels and Low Alloy Steels Using Secondary Targets and the Exact Program.- The Resolution of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra by the Least Squares Method.- The Reduction of Matrix Effects in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis by the Monte Carlo, Fundamental Parameters Method.- 'Pareds'-An Interactive on-Line System for the Interpretation of EDXRF Data.- Variation in Intensity Ratios Used to Identify Asbestos Fibers.- Use of a New Versatile Interactive Regression Analysis Program for X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.- Modelling Intensity and Concentration in Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence.- XRF Applications.- Quantitative Analysis of 300 And 400 Series Stainless Steel by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence.- Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis for Carbon on and in Steels.- Determination of Solids Content in Slurries by X-Ray Scattering.- Developments in the Use of X-Rays in Body Composition Analysis.- XRF: Innovations.- Using Dec Operating System RSX-11M for X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.- Automated Determination of Optimum Excitation Conditions for Single and Multielement Analysis with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.- Improved X-Ray Fluorescence Capabilities by Excitation with High Intensity Polarized X-Rays.- A New X-Ray Spectroscopy Concept: Room Temperature Mercuric Iodide with Peltier-Cooled Preamplification.- Some Studies of Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.- Contributor Index.