Considers the history of the making of the modern world since 1500. This text places Europe and the European civilization in its international setting and considers individual nations from the perspective of their points of contact with a larger civilization.
Volume 1. The rise of Europe; the upheaval in Christendom, 1300-1560; economic renewal and wars of religion, 1560-1648; the establishment of West-European leadership; the transformation of Eastern Europe, 1648-1740; the struggle for wealth and empire; the scientific view of the world; the age of enlightenment; the French Revolution; Napoleonic Europe. Volume 2. Prologue - a revolutionary half-century; reaction versus progress, 1815-1848; revolution and the reimposition of order, 1848-1870; the consolidation of large nation-states, 1859-1871; European civilization, 1871-1914; Europe's world supremacy; the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union; the apparent victory of democracy; democracy and dictatorship; the Second World War; the postwar era - the age of the superpowers; empires into nations - Asia, Africa, the Middle East; the contemporary age - a world transformed.