Still the most applied text on the market, this text is replete with examples, lesson segments, case studies, and practical ideas from experienced teachers. The text provides solid, up-to-date coverage of the foundational areas within educational psychology: learning, development, motivation, teaching, and assessment, combined with intelligent examination of emerging trends in the field and society that affect student learning, such as student diversity, inclusion of students with special learning needs, technology, education and neuroscience, and No Child Left Behind.
EDUCATION PSYCHOLOGY, ELEVENTH EDITION Chapter 1 - Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology Learning and Teaching TodayDramatic Diversity: Students TodayHigh Expectations: No Child Left BehindDo Teachers Make a Difference? Two ExamplesWhat Is Good Teaching?Inside four classroomsBeginning TeachersThe Role of Educational PsychologyIn the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and TeachingIs it Just Common Sense?Using Research to Understand and Improve TeachingWhat is Scientifically Based Research?Theories for TeachingPreview: Theories for Educational PsychologyStages: Piaget, Freud, and EriksonLearning and Motivation: Behaviorism, Information Processing, and Social Cognitive TheoryContextual Theories: Vygotsky and BronfenbrennerThree Questions Across the TheoriesBeware of Either/OrDiversity and Convergence in Educational Psychology STUDENTS Chapter 2 - Cognitive Development and LanguageA Definition of DevelopmentThree Questions Across the TheoriesGeneral Principles of DevelopmentThe Brain and Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget's Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentInfluences on DevelopmentBasic Tendencies in ThinkingFour Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentInformation-Processing and Neo-Piagetian Views of Cognitive DevelopmentSome Limitations of Piaget's TheoryVygotsky's Sociocultural PerspectiveThe Social Sources of Individual ThinkingCultural Tools and Cognitive DevelopmentThe Role of Language and Private SpeechThe Zone of Proximal DevelopmentLimitations of Vygotsky's TheoryImplications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories for TeachersPiaget: What Can We Learn?Vygotsky: What Can We Learn?Reaching Every Student: Using the Tools of the CultureThe Development of LanguageWhat Develops? Language and CulturalWhen and How Does Language Develop?Diversity in Language: Dual Language DevelopmentEmergent LiteracyDiversity and Convergence in Cognitive DevelopmentDiversityConvergences Chapter 3 - The Self, Social, and Moral DevelopmentBronfenbrenner: The Social Context for DevelopmentFamiliesPeersTeachers and StudentsReaching Every Student: Teachers and Child AbusePhysical DevelopmentPhysical and Motor DevelopmentPlay, Recess, and Physical ActivityChallenges in Physical DevelopmentThe Brain and Adolescent DevelopmentSelf and IdentityErickson: Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentRacial and Ethnic IdentitySelf-conceptSelf-esteemPoint/Counterpoint: The School's Roes in Self-EsteemSex Differences in Self-Concept and Self-EsteemGender DevelopmentSex and GenderGender BiasUnderstanding Others and Moral DevelopmentTheory of Mind and IntentionMoral DevelopmentMoral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal ChoicesDiversity in Moral ReasoningMoral Behavior: CheatingDiversity and Convergence in Personal/Social DevelopmentChapter 4 - Learner Differences and Learning NeedsIntelligenceLanguage and LabelsWhat Does Intelligence Mean?Multiple IntelligencesIntelligence as a ProcessMeasuring IntelligenceSex Differences in IntelligenceLearning and Thinking StylesLearning Styles/PreferencesIntellectual StylesIndividual Differences and the LawIDEASection 504 ProtectionsStudents with Learning ChallengesNeuroscience and Learning ChallengesStudents with Learning DisabilitiesStudents with Hyperactivity and Attention DisordersStudents with Language and Communication DisordersStudents with Emotional or Behavioral DifficultiesStudents with Intellectual DifficultiesStudents with Health ImpairmentsStudents Who are DeafAutism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger SyndromeResponse to Intervention (RTI)Students Who are Gifted and TalentedWho are These Students?Identifying and Teaching Gifted StudentsDiversity and Convergences Chapter 5 - Culture and DiversityToday's Diverse ClassroomsAmerican Cultural DiversityMeet Five StudentsCautions: Interpreting Cultural DifferencesEconomic and Social Class DifferencesSocial Class and SESPoverty and School AchievementEthnic and Racial DifferencesTerms: Ethnicity and RaceEthnic and Racial Differences in School AchievementThe Legacy of DiscriminationStereotype ThreatLanguage Differences in the ClassroomDialectsBilingualismReaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual StudentsBilingual EducationGender in Teaching and LearningGender Bias in TextsGender Bias in TeachingMulticultural Education: Creating Culturally Compatible ClassroomsCulturally Relevant PedagogyFostering ResilienceDiversity and ConvergencesDiversity in LearningConvergences: Teaching Every Student LEARNING AND MOTIVATION Chapter 6 - Behavioral Views of LearningUnderstanding LearningNeuroscience of LearningLearning Is Not Always What It SeemsEarly Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical ConditioningOperant Conditioning: Trying New ResponsesTypes of ConsequencesReinforcement SchedulesAntecedents and Behavior ChangeApplied Behavior AnalysisMethods for Encouraging BehaviorsHandling Undesirable BehaviorPutting it All Together: Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and ManagementGroup ConsequencesContingency Contracts and Token ReinforcementReaching Every Student: Severe Behavior ProblemsWhat's New" Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior SupportsChallenges to Behavioral Views: Thinking about BehaviorSocial Learning TheoryElements of Observational LearningSelf-ManagementProblems and IssuesCriticisms of Behavioral MethodsEthical IssuesDiversity and Convergences in Behavioral LearningDiversityConvergence Chapter 7 - Cognitive Views of LearningElements of the Cognitive PerspectiveComparing Cognitive and Behavioral ViewsThe Brain and Cognitive LearningThe Importance of Knowledge in LearningCognitive Views of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong Term-MemoryCapacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term MemoryExplicit Memories: Semantic and EpisodicImplicit MemoriesStoring and Retrieving Information in Long-Term MemoryBecoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic PrinciplesDevelopment of Declarative KnowledgeDevelopment of Procedural KnowledgeDiversity and Convergences in Cognitive LearningDiversity: Individual Differences and Working MemoryDiversity: Individual Differences and Long-Term MemoryConvergences: Connecting with Families Chapter 8 - Complex Cognitive ProcessesMetacognitionMetacognitive Knowledge and RegulationSources of Individual Differences in MetacognitionLearning StrategiesLearning Strategies and TacticsVisual Tools for OrganizingReading StrategiesApplying Learning StrategiesReaching Every Student: Learning Strategies for Students with Learning DisabilitiesProblem SolvingIdentifying: Problem FindingDefining Goals and Representing the ProblemExploring Possible Solution StrategiesAnticipating, Acting, and Looking BackFactors That Hinder Problem SolvingExpert Knowledge and Problem solvingCreativity and Creative Problem SolvingDefining CreativityWhat Are the Sources of Creativity?Assessing CreativityCreativity in the ClassroomThe Big C: Revolutionary InnovationCritical ThinkingDeveloping Critical ThinkingThe Language of ThinkingCritical Thinking in Specific SubjectsTeaching for TransferThe Many Views of TransferTeaching for Positive TransferDiversity and Convergences in Complex Cognitive ProcessesDiversityConvergences Chapter 9 - The Learning Sciences and ConstructivismWhat are the Learning Sciences?What is Constructivism?Cognitive Constructivism: PiagetSocial Constructivism: VygotskyHow is Knowledge Constructed?Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centered TeachingApplications of Constructivist TheoriesDiscovery, Inquiry, and Problem-Based LearningCooperative LearningCognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal TeachingFostering Communities of LearningDilemmas of Constructivist PracticeBrain-based TeachingService LearningLearning in a Digital WorldLearning about and with TechnologyAccessDiversity and Convergence in Constructivist Views Chapter 10 - Social Cognitive Views of Motivation and LearningSocial Cognitive Theory and Triarchic ReciprocitySelf-Efficacy: Students and TeachersAcademic Self-Efficacy, Learning, and MotivationTeachers' Sense of EfficacyAgency and Self-RegulationWhat Influences Self-Regulated Learning?Models of Self-Regulated LearningAn Individual ExampleReaching Every Student: Two Classrooms and a FamilyTeaching Applications of Social Cognitive TheoryModeling and Observational LearningTeaching for Self-regulationCognitive Behavior ModificationDiversity and Convergence in Social Cognitive Explanations Chapter 11 - Motivation in Learning and TeachingTeachers' Casebook: What Would You Do? What Is Motivation?Meeting Some Students Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationFive General Approaches to MotivationNeeds Maslow's Hierarchy of NeedsSelf-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy, and RelatednessNeeds: Lessons for TeachersGoal Orientations Types of Goals and Goal OrientationsFeedback, Goal Framing, and Goal AcceptanceGoals: Lessons for TeachersBeliefs and Self-PerceptionsBeliefs about Knowing: Epistemological BeliefsBeliefs about AbilityBeliefs about Causes and Control: Attribution TheoryBeliefs about Self-WorthBeliefs and Attributions: Lessons for TeachersInterests, Curiosity, Emotions, and AnxietyTapping InterestsCuriosity: Novelty and ComplexityEmotions and AnxietyReaching Every Student: Coping with AnxietyCuriosity, Interests, and Emotions: Lessons for TeachersMotivation to Learn and SchoolTasks for LearningSupporting Autonomy and Recognizing AccomplishmentGrouping, Evaluation, and TimeDiversity and Convergences in Motivation to LearnDiversity in MotivationConvergences: Strategies to Encourage MotivationSummary Table TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT Chapter 12 - Creating Learning EnvironmentsTeachers' Casebook: What Would You Do? The Need for Organization The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation The Goals of Classroom Management Creating a Positive Learning Environment Some Research Results Routines and Rules Required Planning Spaces for Learning Planning for Computer Uses Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning Encouraging Engagement Prevention Is the Best Medicine Caring Relationships: Connections in SchoolDealing with Discipline Problems Stopping Problems QuicklyBullying and Cyber-BullyingSpecial Problems with High School Students Violence in SchoolsPreventionReaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Negotiation The Need for Communication Message Sent-Message Received Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It? Counseling: The Student's Problem Confrontation and Assertive Discipline Diversity and Convergences in Learning Environments Diversity: Culturally Responsive Management Convergences: Research on Management Approaches Summary Table Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do? Chapter 13. Teaching Every StudentThe First Step: PlanningResearch on TeachingCharacteristics of Effective TeachersKnowledge for TeachingTeacher ExpectationsTeaching ApproachesExplanation and Direct InstructionSeatwork and HomeworkHands-on, Minds-on Activities and ProjectsConceptual Change TeachingDifferentiated InstructionFlexible GroupingPeer-Assisted LearningDifferentiated Instruction in Inclusive ClassroomsDiversity and Convergence in TeachingCulturally Relevant TeachingBeyond Models to Excellent Teaching: Learner-Centered Principles Chapter 14 - Classroom Assessment, Grading, and StandardizedTestingBasics of AssessmentMeasurement and AssessmentAssessing the Assessments: Reliability and ValidityClassroom Assessment: TestingUsing the Tests from TextbooksObjective TestingEssay TestingAlternatives to Traditional AssessmentsAuthentic Classroom AssessmentPortfolios and ExhibitionsEvaluating Portfolios and PerformancesInformal AssessmentsGradingCriterion-referenced versus Norm-referenced GradingEffects Grading on StudentsGrades and MotivationBeyond Grading: Communicating with FamiliesStandardized TestingTypes of ScoresInterpreting Standardized Test ReportsAccountability and High-Stakes TestingReaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities Prepare for High-Stakes TestsDiversity and Convergences in AssessmentDiversityConvergences