End-to-End QoS Network Design Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks Second Edition New best practices, technical strategies, and proven designs for maximizing QoS in complex networks This authoritative guide to deploying, managing, and optimizing QoS with Cisco technologies has been thoroughly revamped to reflect the newest applications, best practices, hardware, software, and tools for modern networks. This new edition focuses on complex traffic mixes with increased usage of mobile devices, wireless network access, advanced communications, and video. It reflects the growing heterogeneity of video traffic, including passive streaming video, interactive video, and immersive videoconferences. It also addresses shifting bandwidth constraints and congestion points; improved hardware, software, and tools; and emerging QoS applications in network security. The authors first introduce QoS technologies in high-to-mid-level technical detail, including protocols, tools, and relevant standards. They examine new QoS demands and requirements, identify reasons to reevaluate current QoS designs, and present new strategic design recommendations. Next, drawing on extensive experience, they offer deep technical detail on campus wired and wireless QoS design; next-generation wiring closets; QoS design for data centers, Internet edge, WAN edge, and branches; QoS for IPsec VPNs, and more. Tim Szigeti, CCIE No. 9794 is a Senior Technical Leader in the Cisco System Design Unit. He has specialized in QoS for the past 15 years and authored Cisco TelePresence Fundamentals. Robert Barton, CCIE No. 6660 (R&S and Security), CCDE No. 2013::6 is a Senior Systems Engineer in the Cisco Canada Public Sector Operation. A registered Professional Engineer (P. Eng), he has 15 years of IT experience and is primarily focused on wireless and security architectures. Christina Hattingh spent 13 years as Senior Member of Technical Staff in Unified Communications (UC) in Cisco's Services Routing Technology Group (SRTG). There, she spoke at Cisco conferences, trained sales staff and partners, authored books, and advised customers. Kenneth Briley, Jr., CCIE No. 9754, is a Technical Lead in the Cisco Network Operating Systems Technology Group. With more than a decade of QoS design/implementation experience, he is currently focused on converging wired and wireless QoS. n Master a proven, step-by-step best-practice approach to successful QoS deployment n Implement Cisco-validated designs related to new and emerging applications n Apply best practices for classification, marking, policing, shaping, markdown, and congestion management/avoidance n Leverage the new Cisco Application Visibility and Control feature-set to perform deep-packet inspection to recognize more than 1000 different applications n Use Medianet architecture elements specific to QoS configuration, monitoring, and control n Optimize QoS in rich-media campus networks using the Cisco Catalyst 3750, Catalyst 4500, and Catalyst 6500 n Design wireless networks to support voice and video using a Cisco centralized or converged access WLAN n Achieve zero packet loss in GE/10GE/40GE/100GE data center networks n Implement QoS virtual access data center designs with the Cisco Nexus 1000V n Optimize QoS at the enterprise customer edge n Achieve extraordinary levels of QoS in service provider edge networks n Utilize new industry standards and QoS technologies, including IETF RFC 4594, IEEE 802.1Q-2005, HQF, and NBAR2 This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press (R), which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.
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Introduction xxxvi Part I: QoS Design Overview Chapter 1 Introduction and Brief History of QoS and QoE 1 History and Evolution 2 Then 3 Now 3 Evolution of QoS 4 QoS Basics and Concepts 5 User Expectations: QoS, QoE, and QoX 5 QoS Models: IntServ and DiffServ 6 Fundamental QoS Concepts and Toolset 7 Packet Headers 8 Simplifying QoS 9 Standardization and Consistency 9 Summary 11 Further Reading 11 General 11 IntServ 12 DiffServ 12 Chapter 2 IOS-Based QoS Architectural Framework and Syntax Structure 13 QoS Deployment Principles 13 QoS Architectural Framework 14 QoS Behavioral Model 15 QoS Feature Sequencing 15 Modular QoS Command-Line Framework 16 MQC Syntax 17 Default Behaviors 19 Traffic Classification (Class Maps) 19 Definition of Policies (Policy Maps) 20 Attaching Policies to Traffic Flows (Service Policy) 22 Hierarchical QoS and HQF 23 Legacy QoS CLI No Longer Used 25 AutoQoS 26 Summary 29 Further Reading 29 General 29 AutoQoS 29 Chapter 3 Classification and Marking 31 Classification and Marking Topics 31 Classification and Marking Terminology 32 Security and QoS 33 Trust Boundaries 33 Network Attacks 34 Classification Challenges of Video and Wireless Traffic 34 Marking Fields in Different Technologies 35 Field Values and Interpretation 35 Ethernet 802.1Q/p 37 Ethernet 802.11 WiFi 38 ATM and FR 38 IPv4 and IPv6 39 L2 and L3 Tunnels 39 CAPWAP 40 MPLS 41 Mapping QoS Markings 41 Mapping L2 to L3 Markings 41 Mapping Cisco to RFC 4594 Markings 42 Mapping Markings for Wireless Networks 43 Classification Tools 44 Class-Based Classification (Class Maps) 45 Network-Based Application Recognition 47 NBAR Protocols 48 RTP Traffic 49 Performance Routing 49 Metadata Classification 50 Marking Tools 50 Class-Based Marking (Class Maps) 50 Effects of Feature Sequence 52 Mapping Markings with the Table Map Feature 52 Marking (or Re-Marking) with Policing 53 AutoQoS Marking 54 Recommendations and Guidelines 55 Summary 55 Further Reading 56 Classification and Marking 56 NBAR 56 Video QoS 56 Wireless QoS 57 RFCs 57 Chapter 4 Policing, Shaping, and Markdown Tools 59 Policing and Shaping Topics 59 Policing and Shaping Terminology 60 Placing Policers and Shapers in the Network 61 Tail Drop and Random Drop 61 Re-Mark/Markdown 62 Traffic Types to Police and Shape 62 Token Bucket Algorithms 62 Types of Policers 64 Single-Rate Two-Color Policers 64 RFC 2697 Single-Rate Three-Color Policers 65 RFC 2698 Dual-Rate Three-Color Policers 66 Security and QoS 68 Policing Tools 68 Policers as Markers 68 Class-Based Policing (Policy Maps) 69 Multi-Action Policing 70 Hierarchical Policing 71 Percentage-Based Policing 72 Color-Aware Policing 73 Policing as Part of Low-Latency Queuing 73 Control Plane Policing 74 Unconditional Packet Drop 75 Traffic Shaping Tools 75 Class-Based Shaping (Policy Maps) 76 Hierarchical Class-Based Shaping 77 Percentage-Based Shaping 77 Legacy Shaping Tools 78 ATM Traffic Shaping 78 Frame Relay Traffic Shaping 78 Recommendations and Guidelines 79 Summary 80 Further Reading 80 General 80 DiffServ Policing Standards 80 Policing 80 Shaping 81 Chapter 5 Congestion Management and Avoidance Tools 83 Congestion Management and Avoidance Topics 84 Congestion Management and Avoidance Terminology 84 Congestion Management and Congestion Avoidance 85 Scheduling Algorithms 85 Levels of Queuing 85 Queuing and Scheduling Tools 86 Class-Based Queuing (Policy Maps) 86 Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing 88 Low-Latency Queuing 88 Queuing Below Layer 3: Tx-Ring Operation 91 Congestion Avoidance Tools 92 Random Early Detection 93 Weighted Random Early Detection 93 Recommendations and Guidelines 95 Summary 96 Further Reading 96 Queuing 96 Congestion Avoidance 96 Chapter 6 Bandwidth Reservation Tools 99 Admission Control Tools 100 Resource Reservation Protocol 101 RSVP Overview 101 RSVP Proxy 102 RSVP Deployment Models 103 Basic RSVP Design (IntServ/DiffServ Model) 104 Advanced RSVP Design (IntServ/DiffServ Model) 105 RSVP and LLQ 106 Recommendations and Guidelines 108 Summary 108 Further Reading 109 RSVP for Medianet 109 RSVP Technology 109 Chapter 7 QoS in IPv6 Networks 111 IPv6 and QoS Overview 111 QoS Tools for IPv6 112 QoS Feature Support for IPv6 112 Packet Headers, Classification, and Marking 112 Packet Classification 113 Packet Marking 114 Policing and Shaping 115 Recommendations and Guidelines 115 Summary 116 Further Reading 116 Chapter 8 Medianet 117 An Introduction to Medianet 117 Medianet Architecture and Framework 119 Medianet Features and Capabilities 120 Autoconfiguration 121 Auto Smartports 121 AutoQoS 121 Media Monitoring 122 Mediatrace 122 Performance Monitor 125 IPSLA Video Operation (Traffic Simulator, IPSLA VO) 127 Media Awareness 128 Flow Metadata 129 Network Based Application Recognition 2 130 Media Services Interface 132 Media Services Proxy 132 Summary 133 Further Reading 133 Overviews 133 Design Documents 134 Configuration Guides and Command References 134 Resources and Services 134 Chapter 9 Application Visibility Control (AVC) 135 AVC Use Cases 136 How AVC Works 138 The AVC Building Blocks 140 Building Block 1: NBAR2 140 NBAR2 Protocol Discovery 142 NBAR2 MQC Traffic Classification 144 Building Block 2: Flexible NetFlow 147 Flexible NetFlow Key Fields and Non-Key Fields 148 Configuration of FNF 149 Building Block 3: AVC Management and Reporting 152 Insight Reporter 153 Building Block 4: AVC QoS Controls 154 Deploying AVC QoS Controls at the WAN Edge 154 Deploying AVC QoS Controls at the Internet Edge 156 Performance Considerations When Using AVC 159 Summary 160 Additional Reading 161 Part II: QoS Design Strategies Chapter 10 Business and Application QoS Requirements 163 Global Trends in Networking 164 The Evolution of Video Applications 164 The Explosion of Media 166 The Phenomena of Social Networking 167 The Bring Your Own Device Demand 167 The Emergence of Bottom-Up Applications 168 The Convergence of Media Subcomponents Within Multimedia Applications 168 The Transition to High-Definition Media 169 QoS Requirements and Recommendations by Application Class 169 Voice 170 Video Applications 171 Broadcast Video 173 Real-Time Interactive 174 Multimedia Applications 175 Multimedia Conferencing 176 Multimedia Streaming 177 Data Applications 177 Transactional Data (Low-Latency Data) 178 Bulk Data (High-Throughput Data) 178 Best Effort Data 179 Scavenger (Lower-Priority Data) 180 Control Plane Traffic 180 Network Control 181 Signaling 181 Operations/Administration/Management 182 Cisco (RFC 4594-Based) QoS Recommendations by Application Class Summary 182 QoS Standards Evolution 183 RFC 2597, Clarification 183 RFC 5865, Proposed Standard 184 RFC 4594, Update Draft 185 Summary 187 Further Reading 187 Chapter 11 QoS Design Principles and Strategies 189 QoS Best-Practice Design Principles 189 Hardware Versus Software QoS Best Practices 190 Classification and Marking Best Practices 191 Policing and Markdown Best Practices 192 Queuing and Dropping Best Practices 192 EF Queue Recommendations: The 33% LLQ Rule 193 AF Queue Recommendations 195 DF Queue Recommendations 195 Scavenger Class Queue Recommendations 195 WRED Recommendations 197 QoS Design Strategies 198 Four-Class Model QoS Strategy 198 Eight-Class Model QoS Strategy 200 Twelve-Class Model QoS Strategy 202 Application Class Expansion QoS Strategies 204 QoS for Security Strategies 206 Control Plane Policing Recommendations 208 Data Plane Policing Recommendations 210 Summary 213 Further Reading 214 Chapter 12 Strategic QoS Design Case Study 215 Tifosi Software Inc.: Company Overview 215 Original (Four-Class) QoS Model 215 Business Catalysts for QoS Reengineering 216 Proposed (Eight-Class) QoS Model 217 "Layer 8" Challenges 219 Summary 221 Additional Reading 221 Part III: Campus QoS Design Chapter 13 Campus QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 223 MLS Versus MQC 225 Default QoS 226 Internal DSCP 226 Trust States and Operations 227 Trust Boundaries 230 DSCP Transparency 231 Port-Based QoS Versus VLAN-Based QoS Versus Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 232 EtherChannel QoS 234 Campus QoS Models 235 Ingress QoS Models 235 Egress QoS Models 238 Campus Port QoS Roles 239 Campus AutoQoS 241 Control Plane Policing 243 Summary 244 Additional Reading 246 Chapter 14 Campus Access (Cisco Catalyst 3750) QoS Design 247 Cisco Catalyst 3750 QoS Architecture 248 QoS Design Steps 249 Enabling QoS 250 Ingress QoS Models 250 Trust Models 251 Classification and Marking Models 254 Classification, Marking, and Policing Models 256 Queuing Models 260 Ingress Queuing Model 261 Egress Queuing Models 265 Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 271 Per-VLAN QoS Design 271 Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 272 EtherChannel QoS Design 273 AutoQoS SRND4 273 Control Plane Policing 274 Summary 274 Additional Reading 274 Chapter 15 Campus Distribution (Cisco Catalyst 4500) QoS Design 275 Cisco Catalyst 4500 QoS Architecture 276 QoS Design Steps 277 Queuing Models 277 Four-Class Egress Queuing Model 278 Eight-Class Egress Queuing Model 281 Twelve-Class Egress Queuing Model 284 Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 289 Access-Edge Design Options 290 Conditional Trust Model 290 Medianet Metadata Classification Model 292 Classification and Marking Models 293 Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 294 Per-VLAN QoS Design 297 Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 298 EtherChannel QoS Design 299 Flow-Based QoS 301 Control Plane Policing 303 Summary 303 Further Reading 303 Chapter 16 Campus Core (Cisco Catalyst 6500) QoS Design 305 Cisco Catalyst 6500 QoS Architecture 306 QoS Design Steps 308 Queuing Models 308 Four-Class (4Q4T Ingress and 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 311 Eight-Class (8Q4T Ingress and 1P7Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 314 Twelve-Class (8Q4T Ingress and 1P7Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 318 2P6Q4T Ingress and Egress Queuing Models 328 Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 329 Access-Edge Design Options 330 Conditional Trust Model 330 Classification and Marking Models 332 Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 335 Microflow Policing 341 Per-VLAN QoS Design 342 EtherChannel QoS Design 343 AutoQoS SRND4 344 Control Plane Policing 344 Summary 344 Further Reading 345 Chapter 17 Campus QoS Design Case Study 347 Tifosi Campus Access QoS Design 350 Policy 1: Access-Edge Design for Printer Endpoints (No Trust) 351 Policy 2: Access-Edge Design for Wireless Access Endpoints (DSCP Trust) 351 Policy 3: Access-Edge Design for Cisco TelePresence Endpoints (Conditional Trust) 352 Policy 4: Access-Edge Design for Cisco IP Phones or PCs (Conditional Trust and Classification and Marking) 352 Eight-Class 1P1Q3T Ingress Queuing Design 355 Eight-Class 1P3Q3T Egress Queuing Design 357 Policy 5: Access Layer Uplink Design 359 Tifosi Campus Distribution QoS Design 360 Policy 6: Distribution Layer Downlink Ports (Catalyst 4500E Supervisor 7-E) 360 Policy 7: Distribution Layer Distribution-Link / Core-Uplink Ports 362 Tifosi Campus Core QoS Design 364 Policy 8: Core Layer (10GE) Downlink Design 364 Policy 9: Core Layer (40GE) Core-Link Design 368 Summary 370 Further Reading 371 Part IV: Wireless LAN QoS Design Chapter 18 Wireless LAN QoS Considerations and Recommendations 373 Comparing QoS in Wired and Wireless LAN Environments 374 WLAN QoS Building Blocks 376 The Distributed Coordination Function 376 CSMA/CA 377 The DCF Contention Window 378 IEEE 802.11e and Wireless Multimedia (WMM) 382 Retrofitting DCF: Enhanced Distributed Channel Access 382 Access Categories 383 Arbitration Interframe Spacing 385 Contention Window Enhancements 386 Transmission Opportunity 388 802.11e TSpec: Call Admission Control 388 QoS Design Considerations 389 Defining Upstream and Downstream Traffic Flow 389 QoS Mapping and Marking Considerations 390 The Upstream QoS Marking Strategy 392 The Downstream QoS Marking Strategy 394 Summary 395 Additional Reading 396 Chapter 19 Centralized (Cisco 5500 Wireless LAN Controller) QoS Design 397 QoS Enforcement Points in the WLAN 398 Managing QoS Profiles in the Wireless LAN Controller 399 QoS Marking and Conditional Trust Boundaries 399 WLAN QoS Profiles 400 Building a Guest QoS Profile 408 QoS Design for VoIP Applications 410 Tweaking the EDCA Configuration 411 Call Admission Control on the Wireless Network 413 Enabling WMM QoS Policy on the WLAN 413 Enabling WMM QoS Policy on the WLAN 414 Media Session Snooping (a.k.a. SIP Snooping) 416 Application Visibility Control in the WLC 417 Developing a QoS Strategy for the WLAN 424 Four-Class Model Design 424 Tweaking the QoS Classification Downstream 425 Tweaking the QoS Classification Upstream 429 Eight-Class Model Design 430 Twelve-Class Model Design 431 Summary 432 Further Reading 433 Chapter 20 Converged Access (Cisco Catalyst 3850 and the Cisco 5760 Wireless LAN Controller) QoS Design 435 Converged Access 438 Cisco Catalyst 3850 QoS Architecture 439 QoS Design Steps 442 Enabling QoS 442 Ingress QoS Models 444 Wired-Only Conditional Trust Model 444 Classification and Marking Models 446 Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 448 Queuing Models 454 Wired Queuing 455 Wired 1P7Q3T Egress Queuing Model 456 Wired 2P6Q3T Egress Queuing Model 459 Wireless Queuing 470 Wireless 2P2Q Egress Queuing Model 472 Summary 474 Additional Reading 475 Chapter 21 Converged Access QoS Design Case Study 477 Tifosi Converged Access QoS Design: Wired 481 Policy 1: Access-Edge Design for Wired Printer Endpoints (No Trust) 481 Policy 2: Access-Edge Design for Wired Access Endpoints (DSCP Trust) 481 Policy 3: Access-Edge Design for Cisco TelePresence Endpoints (Conditional Trust) 482 Policy 4: Access-Edge Design for Cisco IP Phones and PCs (Conditional Trust and Classification and Marking) 482 Policy 5: Access-Edge Wired Queuing Design 485 Tifosi Converged Access QoS Design: Wireless 488 Policy 6: Access-Edge Design for Mobile Wireless Clients (Dynamic Policy with and Classification & Marking) 489 Policy 7: Access-Edge Wireless Queuing Design 491 Policy 8: SSID Bandwidth Allocation Between Guest and Enterprise SSIDs (SSID Policy to Separate Bandwidth Distribution) 492 Policy 9: CT 5760 Wireless LAN Controller Uplink Ports 493 Cisco Identity Services Engine 495 Summary 496 Additional Reading 496 Part V: Data Center QoS Design Chapter 22 Data Center QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 499 Data Center Architectures 500 High-Performance Trading Data Center Architectures 500 Big Data (HPC/HTC/Grid) Architectures 501 Virtualized Multiservice Data Center Architectures 503 Secure Multitenant Data Center Architectures 505 Massively Scalable Data Center Architectures 506 Data Center QoS Tools 507 Data Center Bridging Toolset 508 Ethernet Flow Control: IEEE 802.3x 508 Priority Flow Control: IEEE 802.1Qbb 510 Skid Buffers and Virtual Output Queuing 512 Enhanced Transmission Selection: IEEE 802.1Qaz 514 Congestion Notification: IEEE 802.1Qau 515 Data Center Bridging Exchange: IEEE 802.1Qaz + 802.1AB 516 Data Center Transmission Control Protocol 517 NX-OS QoS Framework 519 Data Center QoS Models 520 Data Center Marking Models 520 Data Center Applications and Protocols 521 CoS/DSCP Marking 523 CoS 3 Overlap Considerations and Tactical Options 524 Data Center Application-Based Marking Models 526 Data Center Application/Tenant-Based Marking Models 527 Data Center QoS Models 528 Data Center Port QoS Roles 529 Summary 532 Additional Reading 534 Chapter 23 Data Center Virtual Access (Nexus 1000V) QoS Design 535 Cisco Nexus 1000 System Architecture 537 Nexus 1000V Configuration Notes 539 Monitoring QoS Statistics 540 Ingress QoS Model 540 Trust Models 541 Trusted Server Model 541 Untrusted Server Model 541 Classification and Marking 544 Single-Application Server Model 544 Multi-Application Server Model 545 Server Policing Model 547 Egress QoS Model 549 Four-Class Egress Queuing Model 551 Eight-Class Egress Queuing Model 556 Summary 559 Additional Reading 559 Chapter 24 Data Center Access/Aggregation (Nexus 5500/2000) QoS Design 561 Cisco Nexus 5500 System Architecture 562 Architectural Overview 563 Virtual Output Queuing 564 QoS Groups and System Classes 567 QoS Design Steps 569 Ingress QoS Models 569 Trust Models 570 Trusted Server Model 570 Untrusted Server Model 570 Classification and Marking Models 572 Single-Application Server Model 573 Multi-Application Server Model 576 Application Policing Server Model 578 Modifying the Ingress Buffer Size 580 Egress Queuing Models 582 Four-Class Model 582 Eight-Class Model 587 Additional QoS Designs Options 592 Nexus 5500 L3 QoS Configuration 592 Nexus 2000 Fabric Extender QoS 593 Using the network-qos Policy to Set MTU 597 Summary 597 Additional Reading 598 Chapter 25 Data Center Core (Nexus 7000) QoS Design 599 Nexus 7000 Overview 600 Nexus 7000 M2 Modules: Architecture and QoS Design 604 M2 QoS Design Steps 607 M2 Queuing Models 607 M2 Default Queuing Models 608 M2 Four-Class (4Q2T Ingress / 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Model 610 M2 Eight-Class (8Q2T Ingress / 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Model 615 M2 OTV Edge Device QoS Design 621 Nexus 7000 F2 Modules: Architecture and QoS Design 623 F2 QoS Design Steps 625 F2 Network QoS Policy Design 625 F2 Queuing Models 630 F2 Default Queuing Models 631 F2 Four-Class (4Q1T Ingress / 1P3Q1T Egress) Queuing Model 634 F2 Eight-Class (4Q1T Ingress / 1P3Q1T Egress) Queuing Model 634 FEX QoS Design 638 Additional M2/F2 QoS Design Options 638 Trusted Server Model 638 Untrusted Server Model 638 Single-Application Server Marking Model 642 Multi-Application Server Classification and Marking Model 642 Server Policing Model 643 DSCP-Mutation Model 645 CoPP Design 648 Summary 648 Further Reading 649 Chapter 26 Data Center QoS Design Case Study 651 Tifosi Data Center Virtual Access Layer Nexus 1000V QoS Design 655 Policy 1: Trusted Virtual Machines 655 Policy 2: Single-Application Virtual Machine 655 Policy 3: Multi-Application Virtual Machine 656 Policy 4: Network-Edge Queuing 657 Tifosi Data Center Access/Aggregation Layer Nexus 5500/2000 QoS Design 659 Policy 5: Trusted Server 660 Policy 6: Single-Application Server 660 Policy 7: Multi-Application Server 661 Policy 8: Network-Edge Queuing Policy 662 Tifosi Data Center Core Layer Nexus 7000 QoS Design 666 Policy 9: Network-Edge Queuing (F2 Modules) 666 Policy 10: Network-Edge Queuing (M2 Modules) 668 Policy 11: DSCP Mutation for Signaling Traffic Between Campus and Data Center 671 Summary 672 Further Reading 673Part VI: WAN and Branch QoS DesignChapter 27 WAN and Branch QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 675WAN and Branch Architectures 677 Hardware Versus IOS Software QoS 678 Latency and Jitter 679 Tx-Ring 682 CBWFQ 683 LLQ 684 WRED 685 RSVP 685 Medianet 686 AVC 687 AutoQoS 687 Control Plane Policing 687 Link Types and Speeds 687 WAN and Branch QoS Models 688 Ingress QoS Models 689 Egress QoS Models 689 Control Plane Policing 692 WAN and Branch Interface QoS Roles 692 Summary 693 Further Reading 694 Chapter 28 WAN Aggregator (Cisco ASR 1000) QoS Design 697Cisco ASR 1000 QoS Architecture 698 QoS Design Steps 700 ASR 1000 Internal QoS 701 SPA-Based PLIM 706 SIP-Based PLIM 707 Ingress QoS Models 708 Egress QoS Models 709 Four-Class Model 709 Eight-Class Model 712 Twelve-Class Model 715 Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 725 RSVP 725 Basic RSVP Model 726 Advanced RSVP Model with Application ID 729 AutoQoS SRND4 733 Control Plane Policing 733 Summary 733 Further Reading 734 Chapter 29 Branch Router (Cisco ISR G2) QoS Design 735Cisco ISR G2 QoS Architecture 736 QoS Design Steps 738 Ingress QoS Models 738 Medianet Classification Models 738 Medianet Application-Based Classification and Marking Model 739 Medianet Application-Group-Based Classification Model 743 Medianet Attribute-Based Classification Model 744 NBAR2 Classification Models 744 NBAR2 Application-Based Classification and Marking Model 745 NBAR2 Application-Group-Based Classification Model 748 NBAR2 Attribute-Based Classification Model 748 Custom-Protocol NBAR2 Classification 752 Egress QoS Models 753 Four-Class Model 754 Eight-Class Model 754 Twelve-Class Model 754 Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 757 RSVP 757 AutoQoS SRND4 757 Control Plane Policing 757 Summary 757 Further Reading 758 Chapter 30 WAN and Branch QoS Design Case Study 759Policy 1: Internal (PLIM) QoS for ASR 1000 761 Policy 1a: SIP-Based PLIM QoS 762 Policy 1b: SPA-Based PLIM QoS 762 Policy 2: LAN-Edge QoS Policies 763 Policy 3: WAN Edge QoS Policies 765 Summary 768 Further Reading 769 Part VII: MPLS VPN QoS Design Chapter 31 MPLS VPN QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 771MPLS VPN Architectures 772 MAN and WAN Ethernet Service Evolution 773 Sub-Line-Rate Ethernet Design Implications 775 QoS Paradigm Shift 779 Service Provider Class of Service Models 781 MPLS DiffServ Tunneling Modes 781 Uniform Mode 782 Short Pipe Mode 783 Pipe Mode 784 Enterprise-to-Service Provider Mapping 785 Mapping Real-Time Voice and Video 785 Mapping Control and Signaling Traffic 786 Separating TCP from UDP 786 Re-Marking and Restoring Markings 787 MPLS VPN QoS Roles 787 Summary 789 Further Reading 790 Chapter 32 Enterprise Customer Edge (Cisco ASR 1000 and ISR G2) QoS Design 793QoS Design Steps 794 Ingress QoS Models 795 Egress QoS Models 795 Sub-Line-Rate Ethernet: Hierarchical Shaping and Queuing Models 795 Known SP Policing Bc 796 Unknown SP Policing Bc 797 Enterprise-to-Service Provider Mapping Models 798 Four-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to a Four-CoS Service Provider Model 798 Eight-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to a Six-CoS Service Provider Model 800 Twelve-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to an Eight Class-of-Service Service Provider Model 803 Summary 808 Further Reading 808 Chapter 33 Service Provider Edge (Cisco ASR 9000) QoS Design 809QoS Architecture 810 QoS Design Steps 814 MPLS DiffServ Tunneling Models 814 Uniform Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 815 Uniform Mode Ingress Policer 816 Uniform Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 822 Uniform Mode (MPLS EXP-to-QG) Ingress Mapping Policy 823 Uniform Mode (QG-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 824 Pipe Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 826 Pipe Mode Ingress Policer 827 Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 830 Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-to-QG) Ingress Mapping Policy 831 Pipe Mode (QG-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 832 Short Pipe Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 834 Short Pipe Mode Ingress Policer 835 Short Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 838 Short Pipe Mode (DSCP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 840 Summary 842 Additional Reading 843 Chapter 34 Service Provider Core (Cisco CRS) QoS Design 845QoS Architecture 846 QoS Design Steps 849 SP Core Class-of-Service QoS Models 849 Four-Class-of-Service SP Model 850 Four-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 850 Four-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 853 Six-Class-of-Service SP Core Model 854 Six-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 855 Six-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 856 Eight-Class-of-Service SP Core Model 857 Eight-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 857 Eight-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 858 Summary 860 Additional Reading 860 Chapter 35 MPLS VPN QoS Design Case Study 861Policy 1: CE Router Internal QoS (Cisco ASR 1000) 863 Policy 2: CE Router LAN-Edge QoS Policies 863 Policy 3: CE Router VPN-Edge QoS Policies 863 Policy 4: PE Router Internal QoS (Cisco ASR 9000) 866 Policy 5: PE Router Customer-Edge QoS 866 Policy 6: PE Router Core-Edge QoS 867 Policy 7: P Router Internal QoS (Cisco CRS-3) 868 Policy 8: P Router Interface QoS 868 Summary 868 Additional Reading 868 Part VIII: IPsec QoS Design Chapter 36 IPsec VPN QoS Considerations and Recommendations 871IPsec VPN Topologies 871 Standard IPsec VPNs 872 Tunnel Mode 872 Transport Mode 873 IPsec with GRE 873 Remote-Access VPNs 874 QoS Classification of IPsec Packets 875 The IOS Preclassify Feature 877 MTU Considerations 880 How GRE Handles MTU Issues 881 How IPsec Handles MTU Issues 881 Using the TCP Adjust-MSS Feature 883 Compression Strategies Over VPN 885 TCP Optimization Using WAAS 885 Using Voice Codecs over a VPN Connection 886 cRTP and IPsec Incompatibilities 887 Antireplay Implications 888 Summary 891 Additional Reading 891 Chapter 37 DMVPN QoS Design 893The Role of QoS in a DMVPN Network 895 DMVPN Building Blocks 895 How QoS Is Implemented in a DMVPN? 895 DMVPN QoS Configuration 896 Next-Hop Routing Protocol 897 The Need for a Different Approach to QoS in DMVPNs 898 The Per-Tunnel QoS for DMVPN Feature 899 DMVPN QoS Design Example 900 DMVPN QoS Design Steps 902 Configuring the Hub Router for Per-Tunnel QoS 902 Configuring the Hub Router for the Four-Class QoS Model 903 Configuring the Hub Router for the Eight-Class QoS Model 905 Configuring the Hub Router for the Twelve-Class QoS Model 907 Configuring the Spoke Routers for Per-Tunnel QoS 910 Verifying Your DMVPN QoS Configuration 913 Per-Tunnel QoS Between Spokes 917 Summary 918 Additional Reading 919 Chapter 38 GET VPN QoS Design 921GET VPN QoS Overview 922 Group Domain of Interpretation 923 GET VPN Building Blocks 924 IP Header Preservation 926 GET VPN Configuration Review 928 Key Server Configuration 928 Group Member Configuration 929 GET VPN QoS Configuration 931 Configuring a GM with the Four-Class Model 932 Configuring a GM with the Eight-Class Model 933 Configuring a GM with the Twelve-Class Model 934 Confirming the QoS Policy 936 How and When to Use the QoS Preclassify Feature 939 A Case for Combining GET VPN and DMVPN 940 Working with Your Service Provider When Deploying GET VPN 941 Summary 941 Additional Reading 942 Chapter 39 Home Office VPN QoS Case Study 943Building the Technical Solution 943 The QoS Application Requirements 944 The QoS Configuration 945 Headend Router Configuration 946 Home Office Router (Spoke) Configuration 948 Summary 952 Additional Reading 952 Index 953 Part XI: Appendixes (Online) Appendix A AutoQoS for Medianet Appendix B Control Plane Policing
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Tim Szigeti, CCIE No. 9794, is a senior technical leader in the Systems Design Unit at Cisco Systems, where his role is to design network architectures for enterprise mobility solutions. He has specialized in quality of service technologies for the past 15 years, during which time he has authored many technical papers, design guides, and two Cisco Press books: End-to-End QoS Network Design (version 1) and Cisco TelePresence Fundamentals.

Robert Barton, CCIE No. 6660, is located in Vancouver, where he lives with his wife and two children. He graduated from the University of British Columbia with a degree in engineering physics, and is a registered professional engineer. Rob holds dual CCIEs, in Routing and Switching and Security, and was also the first CCDE in Canada. Rob joined Cisco from ArrowPoint Communications, where he worked as a data center specialist supporting many of the largest corporations in Canada. In the time since ArrowPoint was acquired by Cisco, Rob has worked as a public sector systems engineer, primarily focused on wireless and security architectures. Currently, Rob is working on SmartGrid network technologies, including smart meter and intelligent substation design.

Christina Hattingh spent 13 years as a senior member of the technical staff in Unified Communications (UC) in the Enterprise Networking Routing Group (formerly Services Routing Technology Group or SRTG) at Cisco Systems. The SRTG products, including the Cisco 2900/3900 and 2800/3800 series ISR platforms and their predecessors, were the first Cisco platforms to converge voice, data, and video traffic and services on IP networks by offering TDM gateway interfaces, WAN interfaces, call control, and QoS features. The ISR series of routers often live at smaller remote offices and therefore at the edge of the WAN, where the need for QoS services is most sensitive. In this role, Christina spoke at Cisco Live conferences, trained Cisco sales staff and Cisco resale partners on router-based UC technologies, authored several Cisco Press books, and advised customers on UC network deployment and design, including QoS designs and helping them through the TDM to SIP trunk industry transition.

Kenneth Briley, Jr., CCIE No. 9754 is a technical lead in the Network Operating Systems Technology Group at Cisco Systems. For over 10 years, he has specialized in quality of service design and implementation in customer environments, alignment of QoS features and functions, and the marketing of new products that leverage QoS technologies. During this time, he has written several deployment guides and whitepapers, presented at Cisco Live, and most recently has focused on the convergence of wired and wireless quality of service.