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Marine Ecological Field Methods - 2018 - (9781119184300)

Marine Ecological Field Methods: A Guide for Marine Biologists and Fisheries Scientists

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About the Editors ANNE GRO VEA SALVANES, JENNIFER DEVINE, KNUT HELGE JENSEN, JON THOMASSEN HESTETUN, KJERSTI SJOTUN, and HENRIK GLENNER, University of Bergen, Norway

A comprehensive, clear, and detailed guide to procedures for conducting marine ecological field studiesMarine Ecological Field Methods is a comprehensive resource that offers the most relevant sampling methodologies for quantitative and qualitative studies of mesopelagic, demersal, littoral, and soft-bottom organisms, as well as relevant physical parameters. The authors describe how various sampling gears work, how to operate them, their limitations, guides on sorting and measuring collected organisms, and how to deal with subsamples of large catches. The text also explains how to use acoustic equipment for monitoring aggregations of organisms, for example fish shoals, as well as the use of sensors for registering environmental variables such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, and light.The text contains cutting-edge research techniques that are in their final stages of development for use in research surveys. Marine Ecological Field Methods is designed to help with the entire procedure for conducting a field study, including the generation of hypotheses, planning field collection of data, conducting field work, data exploration and statistical analysis with the use of R, and presentation of results in a final report. This essential resource:Covers a wide range of techniques and methods for the marine environmentIncludes tried and trusted methodologies and techniques from a team of noted experts in the fieldContains information on sampling equipment ranging from those that are useful in the littoral zone to shallow nearshore areas, including bottles, secchi discs, and gillnets, and finally large trawls, benthic sleds, ROV and advanced technologies for remote sensing in the open ocean.Explores the step-by-step procedures for conducting a field study, from formulating hypotheses to the process of registering and reporting resultsWritten for students and professionals in the field, this vital resource describes marine ecological sampling equipment, methods and analysis, ranging from physical parameters to fish, microalgae, zooplankton, benthos and macroalgae.

List of Contributors xiForeword xiiiAcknowledgements xv1 The Marine Environment 1Jon Thomassen Hestetunâ , Kjersti Sjotunâ , Dag L. Aksnes, Lars Asplin, Jennifer Devine, Tone Falkenhaug, Henrik Glenner, Knut Helge Jensen and Anne Gro Vea Salvanesâ Lead authors; co-authors in alphabetical order1.1 Marine Habitats 41.1.1 The Pelagic and Benthic Realms 41.2 The Coastal and Fjord Biotopes 51.2.1 The Littoral and Sublittoral Habitats 61.2.2 The Continental Shelf and Slope 81.2.3 The Deep Ocean 91.3 Physical Characteristics of the Pelagic System 101.3.1 The Light Environment 151.3.1.1 Inherent Optical Properties: Scattering and Absorption Coefficients 151.3.1.2 Visibility, Sighting Distance, and the Beam Attenuation Coefficient 161.3.1.3 Light Penetration and the Attenuation Coefficient of Diffuse Light 161.3.1.4 Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) 171.4 Temperate Marine Communities Environment and Organisms 181.4.1 Littoral Organisms 181.4.1.1 Species, Zonation, and Communities 181.4.2 Sublittoral Organisms 201.4.3 Demersal and Benthic Organisms 211.4.3.1 Bottom ]associated Organisms 211.4.3.2 Continental Shelf and Slope Benthos 221.4.3.3 Benthic Fish of the Continental Shelf and Slope 231.4.3.4 Deep Bottom Fish of Fjords and the Norwegian Deeps 241.4.4 Pelagic Organisms 241.4.4.1 Plankton and Micronekton 241.4.4.2 Pelagic Fish 281.4.4.3 Mesopelagic Organisms 291.4.4.4 Deep ]pelagic Fish 30References 302 Planning Marine Field Studies 33Jennifer Devineâ , Keno Ferter, Henrik Glenner, Jon Thomassen Hestetun, Knut Helge Jensen, Leif Nottestad, Michael Pennington, David John Rees, Anne Gro Vea Salvanes, Kjersti Sjotun and Arved Staby â Lead author; co-authors in alphabetical order2.1 Survey and Sampling Design 332.1.1 Survey Design 352.1.2 Sampling at a Station 362.2 Littoral Survey Design 382.2.1 Sampling Methods 402.3 Benthos Survey Design 402.3.1 Mapping the Biodiversity of Sognefjord An Example of a Multi ]sampling Approach 422.3.1.1 The Objectives of the Project 432.3.1.2 Sampling Strategy and Sampling Design 432.3.1.3 Methods and Sampling Activities 442.4 Oceanic Survey Design 442.4.1 Pelagic Trawl Survey for Abundance Estimation of Mackerel 452.4.1.1 Background 452.4.1.2 Primary Objectives 452.4.1.3 Survey Design 462.4.1.4 Equipment 472.4.1.5 Sampling 472.4.1.6 Assumptions 472.4.1.7 Computations 472.4.1.8 Results 482.4.1.9 Potential Uncertainties and Bias 482.4.1.10 What are the Data Used for? 482.4.2 Bottom Trawl Surveys to Monitor Demersal Fish 492.4.2.1 Background 492.4.2.2 Primary Objectives 492.4.2.3 Survey Design 502.4.2.4 Equipment 512.4.2.5 Assumptions 522.4.2.6 Computations 532.4.2.7 What are the Data Used for? 532.5 Ecological Process Studies 542.5.1 Studying Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) of Mesopelagic Organisms Using Acoustics 542.5.1.1 Background 542.5.1.2 Primary Objectives 552.5.1.3 Survey Design 562.5.1.4 Equipment 562.5.1.5 Sampling 572.5.1.6 Assumptions 582.5.1.7 Computations 592.5.1.8 Results 612.5.1.9 Potential Uncertainties and Bias 612.5.1.10 What are the Data Used for? 632.5.2 Studying Barotrauma Impacts in Physoclistous Fish Species 632.5.2.1 Background 632.5.2.2 Primary Objectives 642.5.2.3 Survey Design 642.5.2.4 Equipment 662.5.2.5 Assumptions 662.5.2.6 Computations 662.5.2.7 Results 662.5.2.8 What are the Data Used for? 67References 69Further Reading 733 Sampling Gears and Equipment 75Anne Gro Vea Salvanesâ , Henrik Glennerâ , Dag L. Aksnes, Lars Asplin, Martin Dahl, Jennifer Devine, Arill Engas, Svein Rune Erga, Tone Falkenhaug, Keno Ferter, Jon Thomassen Hestetun, Knut Helge Jensen, Egil Ona, Shale Rosen and Kjersti Sjotun â Lead authors; co-authors in alphabetical order3.1 Sampling Organisms 753.1.1 Direct Observations 753.1.1.1 Littoral Zone Methods 753.1.1.2 ROV Sampling 783.1.1.3 Video/image ]based Methods 793.1.1.4 Manned Submersibles 793.1.1.5 Scuba Diving 793.1.2 Active Gears 793.1.2.1 Sampling Trawls (Midwater and Bottom) 793.1.2.2 Beach Seine 853.1.2.3 Plankton Nets 863.1.2.4 Multiple Nets 893.1.2.5 Sledges and Dredges 913.1.2.6 Grabs and Corers 943.1.2.7 Water Samplers 953.1.3 Passive Gears 983.1.3.1 Gillnets and Entangling Nets 983.1.3.2 Pots 993.1.3.3 Fyke Nets 1003.1.3.4 Hook ]and ]line 1013.1.4 Remote Sensing 1013.1.4.1 Acoustics 1013.1.4.2 AUVs 1073.1.4.3 Satellite or Infrared Light 1073.2 Sampling the Physical Environment 1103.2.1 Conductivity, Salinity, Temperature, Oxygen 1103.2.1.1 CTD 1103.2.1.2 Weather Station 1113.2.2 Light 1113.2.2.1 Secchi Disc 1113.2.2.2 Transmission Meters 1123.2.2.3 PAR Sensors 1123.2.2.4 Spectroradiometers 1133.2.3 Currents (Direction, Speed) 1133.2.3.1 ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) 1133.2.3.2 LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) 1163.2.3.3 Small Handheld ADCPs 1163.2.3.4 Moorings with ADCPs 1173.2.4 Sediment 1173.3 Suitability of Equipment in Given Habitat Types 118References 1184 Sorting Specimens and Preserving Materials 121Anne Gro Vea Salvanesâ , Henrik Glennerâ , Jennifer Devine, Jon Thomassen Hestetun, Mette Hordnes, Knut Helge Jensen, Frank Midtoy and Kjersti Sjotun â Lead authors; co-authors in alphabetical order4.1 Sampling Diary 1214.2 Sorting and Preserving Littoral Collections 1214.3 Sorting Zooplankton 1224.3.1 Procedure for Processing Small Zooplankton Samples for Total Biomass 1244.4 Sieving and Sorting Benthic Samples 1254.5 Fish and Nekton 1264.5.1 Trawl Samples 1264.5.1.1 Sorting a Codend Sample and Subsampling 1294.5.2 Sorting Hook ]and ]Line Samples 1374.6 Data Records 1374.6.1 Station Records and Species Composition 1384.6.2 Detailed Individual Measurements 1424.6.3 Information Transfer to Data Files 1424.7 Samples for Storage 1444.7.1 Fixatives 1454.7.2 Health and Security When Using Fixatives 147References 1495 Data Analysis 151Knut Helge Jensenâ , Jennifer Devine, Henrik Glenner, Jon Thomassen Hestetun, Anne Gro Vea Salvanes and Kjersti Sjotun â Lead authors; co-authors in alphabetical order5.1 Scripts 1515.2 Setting the Working Directory 1525.3 Importing Data 1535.4 Working with Data 1555.4.1 Error Checking 1555.4.2 Saving Data 1595.5 Data Exploration and Statistical Testing 1605.5.1 Analysis of Marine Communities 1605.5.1.1 The Bray ]Curtis Dissimilarity Index 1635.5.2 Physical Environment 1675.5.3 Zooplankton Samples 1705.5.4 Fish and Nekton 1755.5.4.1 Hook ]and ]line 1755.5.4.2 Trawls 1755.5.5 Mapping 2005.5.5.1 Making Maps with R 200References 206Index 209

  • Utgitt: 2018
  • Innbinding: Innbundet (stive permer)
  • Språk: Engelsk
  • ISBN13: 9781119184300
  • Forlag: John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Sider: 240