Focusing on both quantitative and qualitative research strategies, this text offers a detailed introduction to the most important and widely used research methods in medical statistics. Suitable for researchers as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students, it keeps mathematics to a minimum, includes numerous examples and exercises from the health sciences, and places rigorous attention on background material such as descriptive statistics and elementary probability. The book provides readers with the practical statistical skills needed to advance their own research careers.
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The Nature of Scientific ResearchWhat Is Science?The Principles of Hypothesis TestingThe Logic of Hypothesis TestingWhat Constitutes an Explanation?Appendix: The Work of Carl Hempel Ethics in Health and Medical ResearchWhy Are Ethics Important?Approaches to EthicsResearch on Humans and AnimalsPrinciples of EthicsEthical ProblemsAudit ResearchEthics and Health and SafetyFraudAppendix 1: The Milgram ExperimentAppendix 2: Authority and Obedience in a Hospital SettingAppendix 3: Codes of Conduct Descriptive StatisticsWhat Are Data?Isssues with Data HandlingGraphs and Charts and DistributionsUnivariate DisplayMultivariate DisplayAbusive StatisticsAppendix: Exploratory Data Analysis Elementary Statistical ConceptsProbabilityAveragesBig Sigma - SummationLittle Sigma - Standard DeviationWhat Does It Mean to Be Normal?Statistics and Computers Practical Hypothesis TestingThe Hows and Whys of Hypothesis TestingIndependent Sample t-TestsPaired Sample t-TestsType I Errors, Type II Errors and PowerChi-Squared TestsOther Nonparametric TestsNormality TestingAppendix: Case Study - Cancer Deaths ANOVAOne-Way ANOVAPost-Hoc TestsFactorial DesignsRepeated Measures DesignsFurther Issues: Assumptions, Transformations, Missing Data, Extensions Survey and Questionnaire DesignSampling and SurveysData CollectionQuestionnaire DesignGood and Bad QuestionnairesProblem AreasAppendix: The General Health Questionnaire Sampling SchemesSimple Random SamplingStratified SamplingCluster SamplingSystematic SamplingAppendix: The Random Response Model Reliability and ValidityWhat Do These Words Mean?Some Ways to Measure ReliabilityCronbach's AlphaTypes of ValidityAppendix: Case Study - Nutrition for Sport Qualitative ResearchPrinciples of Qualitative ResearchInterviews, Focus Groups and ObservationApproaches to the Analysis of Qualitative DataThematic AnalysisAnalysis of Social InteractionWriting up Qualitative Research Correlation and Simple Linear RegressionRelationships between VariablesPearson's CoefficientAlternatives to PearsonCorrelation and CausationSimple RegressionRegression Line and EquationPrediction Multiple RegressionObtaining the ModelEvaluating the ModelImproving the Model: Plots, Transformations, Qualitative VariablesVariable SelectionAppendix: Case Study - Cardiovascular Risk Factor AnalysisData ReductionPrincipal Components Analysis and Factor AnalysisAppendix: Questionnaire Data - Creating or Testing Scales Epidemiology and DemographyPrinciples of Population HealthMortality and MorbidityIncidence and PrevalenceStandardized Indicators and RisksDisease Mapping Clinical TrialsEvidence Based Medicine and the Cochrane CollaborationRCTs as the Gold StandardOther DesignsCase-Control StudiesSystematic Reviews Research in PracticePlanning a StudyDifferent Forms of ReportsLab Reports and SimilarThe Dissertation ProjectPublishing Your WorkGrant Applications References
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