Language acquisition research is challenging-the intricate behavioral and cognitive foundations of speech are difficult to measure objectively. The audible components of speech, however, are quantifiable and thus provide crucial data. This practical guide synthesizes the authors' decades of experience into a comprehensive set of tools that will allow students and early career researchers in the field to design and conduct rigorous studies that produce reliable and valid speech data and interpretations. The authors thoroughly review specific techniques for obtaining qualitative and quantitative speech data, including how to tailor the testing environments for optimal results. They explore observational tasks for collecting natural speech and experimental tasks for eliciting specific types of speech. Language comprehension tasks are also reviewed so researchers can study participants' interpretations of speech and conceptualizations of grammar. Most tasks are oriented towards children, but special considerations for infants are also reviewed, as well as multilingual children. Chapters also provide strategies for transcribing and coding raw speech data into reliable data sets that can be scientifically analyzed. Furthermore, they investigate the intricacies of interpretation so that researchers can make empirically sound inferences from their data and avoid common pitfalls that can lead to unscientific conclusions.
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PrefaceAcknowledgmentsIntroductionI. Fundamentals of Language Acquisition ResearchThe Challenge of Studying LanguagePreparing to Work With Children, Schools, and FamiliesCreating the Data I: Working in Teams, Basic Data Collection, Data Sharing, and Data Management II. Experimental and Observational Methods in Language Acquisitions ResearchStudying Language Acquisition Through Collecting SpeechIntroduction to Experimental Methods: Design and AnalysisExperimental Tasks for Generating Language Production DataExperimental Tasks for Generating Language Comprehension DataThe Grammaticality Judgment TaskIII. Managing and Interpreting Speech DataCreating the Data II: Begin Data ProcessingCreating the Data III: Preparing for Data AnalysisInterpreting the Data: Scientific InferenceIV. Special Considerations in Language Acquisition ResearchAssessing Multilingual AcquisitionIntroduction to Infant Testing Methods in Language Acquisition ResearchConclusions and Proceeding to the FutureAppendix A. Transcription SymbolsAppendix B. The International Phonetic AlphabetAppendix C. Outline for Preparation of Schematic Research ProposalSuggested ReadingsReferencesIndex
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Barbara Lust, Cornell University, USA; Maria Blume, University of Texas at El Paso, USA.