Who were the new social groups situated between the top and bottom of society, between capitalists and workers, between the bourgeoisie and the common people, between the rich and the poor? Some were new groups, like public and private functionaries, some were new versions of older groups, like artisans and shopkeepers. The rise and transformation of large segments of the social middle completely changed the societies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden during the hundred years between 1840 and 1940. Widespread repercussions were felt in the areas of social relations, politics, work, gender relations, professional and voluntary associations and attitudes. This book tackles a neglected field and aims to fill an academic void by presenting the first comprehensive history of the Scandinavian middle classes for students and researchers at universities and colleges. It will also prove valuable to other students and teachers across the humanities and social sciences, as well as to the general interested reader.