Conducting Educational Research, Sixth Edition thoroughly addresses the major components of research design and methodology. The text is especially useful for inexperienced student-researchers and doctoral students in the early stages of preparing a dissertation. The early chapters of the text clearly describe the process of selecting a problem, reviewing the literature, constructing a hypothesis, identifying and labeling variables, and constructing operational definitions. The later chapters assist students in refining methodological procedures, analyzing data, and writing the final research report. The clarity of the text and the numerous practical examples help to reinforce important concepts and key ideas, increasing the efficacy of the text for even the most inexperienced student-researchers. Additionally, sample studies are included as models of acceptable published research and serve as a guide against which students may evaluate their own work. Changes in New Edition *More illustrations, tables, figures, and bulleted lists to enhance understanding *More and simpler explanations of complex process *A greater balance between the various approaches to research, ranging from experimental to qualitative, with causal-comparative, survey, and evaluation in-between Part I *Expanded to include additional ethical considerations when conducting research. Part II: *Renamed "Carrying out Fundamental Steps of Research" *Additional details regarding measurement and observation *Expanded discussion of the application of design criteria Part III: *Renamed "Carrying out Quantitative Research" *Additional chapters on experimental research, correlational and causal-comparative research, survey research, and evaluation research.
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Conducting Educational Research is geared to help graduate students understand and apply the most important principles of scholarly investigation. The clarity of the text and the numerous practical examples help to reinforce important concepts and key ideas, increasing the efficacy of the text for even the most inexperienced student-researchers.
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Part I. Introduction Chapter 1: The Role of Research What Is Research? Validity in Research Internal and External Validity Dealing With Reality Survey Research Characteristics of the Research Process Some Ethical Considerations Self Evaluations Part II. Fundamental Steps of Research Chapter 2: Selecting a Problem Characteristics of a Problem Narrowing the Range of Problems Classroom Research Problems Another Problem Framework Programmatic Research as a Source of Problems Specific Considerations in Choosing a Problem Chapter 3: Reviewing the Literature The Purpose of the Review Literature Review Sources Conducting a Literature Search Reviewing and Abstracting Writing the Literature Review Chapter 4: Identifying and Labeling Variables A Research Question and Its Variables The Independent Variable The Dependent Variable The Relationship Between Independent and Dependent Variables The Moderator Variable Control Variables Intervening Variables The Combined Variables Some Considerations for Variable Choice Chapter 5: Constructing Hypotheses and Meta-Analyses Formulating Hypotheses Hypotheses Based on Conceptualizing Going From Theory to Hypotheses: An Example Meta-Analysis: Constructing Hypotheses by Synthesizing Past Research Some Further Illustrations Testing a Hypothesis Chapter 6: Constructing Operational Definitions of Variables Why Have Operational Definitions? Basing an Operational Definition on Observable Criteria Alternative Ways of Generating Operational Definitions The Criterion of Exclusiveness Operational Definitions and the Research Process The Research Spectrum Part III. Types of Research Chapter 7: Applying Design Criteria: Internal and External Validity The Control Group Factors Affecting Internal Validity or Certainty Factors Affecting External Validity or Generality Controlling for Participant Bias: Equating Experimental and Control Groups Controlling for Experience Bias: Equating Experimental and Control Conditions Overall Control of Participant and Experience Bias Appraising the Success of the Manipulation Chapter 8: Experimental Research Designs A Shorthand for Displaying Designs Pre-Experimental Designs (Non-designs) True Experimental Designs Factorial Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Ex Post Facto Designs Designs to Control for External Validity Based on Reactive Effects Chapter 9: Correlational and Casual-Comparative Research Correlational and Casual-Comparative Research Correlational Research Steps to Conducting a Correlational Study Casuaul-Comparative Research Longitudinal Research Threats to Internal and External Validity for the Three Designs Chapter 10: Identifying and Describing Procedures for Observation and Measurement Test Reliability Test Validity Types of Measurement Scales Ordinal Scales Describing Test Performances Standardized, or Norm-Referenced, Tests Criterion-Referenced Tests Constructing a Paper-and-Pencil Performance Test Constructing a Scale Constructing an Observation Recording Device Chapter 11: Constructing and Using Questionnaires, Interviews, and Survey Research What is Survey Research? What Do Questionnaires and Interviews Measure? Question Formats: How to Ask the Questions Response Modes: How to Answer the Questions Constructing a Questionnaire or Interview Schedule Sampling Procedures Procedures for Administrating a Questionnaire Conducting an Interview Study Coding and Scoring Part IV. Concluding Steps of Research Chapter 12 Carrying Out Statistical Analyses Measures of Central Tendency and Variability Coding and Rostering Data Choosing the Appropriate Statistical Test Carrying Out Parametric Statistical Tests Correlation and Regression Analyses Carrying Out Nonparametric Statistical Tests Chapter 13: Writing a Research Report The Research Proposal The Introduction Section The Method Section The Results Section The Discussion Section The References The Abstract Preparing Tables Preparing Figures and Graphs Getting an Article Published Part V. Additional Approaches Chapter 14: Conducting Evaluation Studies Formative Versus Summative Evaluation A Model for Summative Evaluation Defining the Goals of a Program Measuring the Goals of a Program (The Dependent Variable) Assessing Attainment of a Program's Goals Design, Data Collection, and Statistical Analysis Chapter 15: Qualitative Research: Concepts and Analysis Characteristics of Qualitative Research Identifying General Research Problems Specifying the Questions to Answer Research Methodology Data Sources Conducting a Case Study Analyzing the Data and Preparing the Report Chapter 16: Action Research What is Action Research? Assumptions That Guide Action Research The Process of Action Research Evaluation Action Research Part VI. The "Consumer" of Research Chapter 17: Analyzing and Critiquing a Research Study The Introductory Section The Method Section The Results and Discussion Sections An Sample Research Report: Analysis and Critique An Example Evaluation Part VII. Appendixes Appendix A: Tables Appendix B: Worksheets for Performing Statistical Tests
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Based on my experience with scores of graduate student research projects, I believe Conducting Educational Research, sixth edition to be clear, concise, and highly accessible for all students. The content is sufficiently thorough, yet it is effectively laid out so that even the most novice research student would not find the text user-friendly. -- R. D. Nordgren, National UniversityA unique book for teachers of research and a "must have" guide for novice researchers. The book contains plenty of clear-cut examples that demonstrate research methods, ideas or concepts. It is one of the best that I have read on research! -- Madeline Justice, Texas A&M UniversityThe full spectrum of educational researchers - from novice to experienced - will enjoy the practical guidance provided by Tuckman and Harper in their book. The abundance of real-life examples, sample studies, and self-evaluation tools connect theory with its applications in a variety of settings. Therefore, this book represents a valuable resource to any educational research endeavor. -- Marius Boboc, Cleveland State UniversityThis is a readable and understandable introduction to educational research focused on issues of importance to the classroom teaching and learning experience. Instructors are provided with concrete examples of research related to the classroom that is relevant to teachers; teachers are offered a clear presentation of the terms and processes critical to the development of sound research methodology and analysis. A useful resource for teaching concepts of research in the graduate classroom, as well as a reference for teachers to use in future practice in their own classroom. -- Ronald Beebe, University of Houston, Downtown
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Bruce W. Tuckman is professor of educational psychology at the Ohio State University, where he is also Founding Director of the Walter E. Dennis Learning Center. Tuckman is an American Psychologist, who has carried out seminal research into the theory of group dynamics. In 1965, he published a model of group development called Tuckman's Stages, with stages of Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. In 1977, he added a fifth stage named Adjourning. Tuckman's current scholarly interest focuses on the topic of motivation: its manifestation in the form of self-regulatory behavior, and its absence in the form of procrastination, particularly as applied to the behavior of studying. He is building a model linking motivational factors to school achievement, and is examining specific interventions that enhance the self-regulatory behavior of students. He is also interested in study strategies that help students learn from text. Brian E. Harper is associate professor of educational psychology at Cleveland State University. A former classroom teacher in the Philadelphia , Pennsylvania public school district, Dr. Harper completed his doctoral work at The Ohio State University in Educational Psychology. His research interests include African American racial identity development and motivational psychology, particularly as it applies to students in urban settings. His current work focuses on African American students and the factors that promote or inhibit academic self-regulation.