High Quality Science requires High Quality Data! Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Available both in print and online, the Handbook covers 390 chemistry, physics, and related subjects organized in easy-to-find, well-organized tables. Every year, new reported data and new scientific areas are added, making the Handbook the largest comprehensive physical science data source available anywhere.The 104th Edition of the Handbook has been completely reorganized to meet the needs of today’s scientists. The first section has property data on the elements, organic and inorganic compounds, water, bio-medical compounds, and polymers. Other sections focus on applications of chemical and physical data, data of importance in laboratory work, and information of units and nomenclature. The purpose of the reorganization is to make sure users can easily find all data on related subjects.Handbook features include:All data reviewed and evaluated by subject matter expertsStandardized chemical names, structures, property names, and property unitsImportant information on subjects such as chemical and laboratory safety, and nomenclatureChemical and physical data critical for fields such as environmental science, bio-medical chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, materials innovation, geo- and astrophysics, and solid-state scienceDigital tools in our Online Edition to analyze, graph, process, and exploit our data content
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This Handbook is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Available both in print and online, the Handbook covers 390 chemistry, physics, and related subjects organized in easy-to-find, well-organized tables.
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IntroductionThe Editor and Editorial BoardPrefaceNew Data and Updates in the 104th EditionOn the Evaluation of Chemistry and Physics DataCurrent ContributorsPart 1 Data on Chemical SubstancesSection 1: Elements and Their IsotopesIntroductionThe ElementsStandard Atomic WeightsAtomic Masses and Isotopic AbundancesAbundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the SeaMelting, Boiling, Triple, and Critical Points and Densities of the ElementsHeat Capacity of the Elements at 25 °CTable of the IsotopesPhase Transitions in the Solid Elements at Atmospheric PressureCrystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the ElementsDensity of Molten Elements as a Function of TemperaturePhysical Properties of the Rare-Earth MetalsThermal and Physical Properties of Pure Elemental MetalsElectrical Resistivity of Pure Elemental MetalsElectron Work Function of the ElementsMagnetic Susceptibility of the ElementsOptical Properties of Selected ElementsIndex of Refraction of Liquid ElementsVapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - EquationsVapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - DataSection 2: Atomic Structure and Spectroscopy DataIntroductionElectron Configuration and Ionization Energy of Neutral Atoms in the Ground StateIonization Energies of Atoms and Atomic IonsElectron Affinities of the Atomic ElementsPersistent Lines of the Neutral Atomic Elements Atomic Transition ProbabilitiesAtomic Radii of the ElementsPolarizabilities of the Atomic ElementsSection 3: Properties of Organic CompoundsIntroductionPhysical Constants of Organic CompoundsCAS Registry Number Index of Organic CompoundsDiamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic CompoundsCritical Constants of Organic CompoundsDissociation Constants of Organic Acids and BasesMiscibility of Organic SolventsDependence of Boiling Point of Organic Liquids on PressureBond Lengths in Crystalline Organic CompoundsBond Lengths in Organometallic CompoundsSection 4: Properties of Inorganic CompoundsIntroductionPhysical Constants of Inorganic CompoundsCAS Registry Number Index of Inorganic CompoundsCritical Constants of Inorganic CompoundsPermittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic SolidsDensity of Molten Inorganic Salts as a Function of TemperatureDissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and BasesIndex of Refraction of Inorganic LiquidsIndex of Refraction of Inorganic CrystalsMagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Inorganic CompoundsOptical Properties of Selected Inorganic Solids and TeflonAqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds as a Function of TemperatureSolubility Product Constants of Inorganic SaltsSolubility Chart for Inorganic SaltsSolubility of Common Inorganic Salts as a Function of TemperatureProperties of Gas Clathrate HydratesPhysical and Optical Properties of MineralsCrystallographic Data on MineralsSection 5: Properties of WaterIntroductionThermophysical Properties of Water and SteamFixed-Point Thermophysical Properties of H2O and D2OProperties of Saturated Liquid D2OVapor Pressure and Other Saturation Properties of WaterStandard Density of Water as a Function of TemperatureIonization Constant of Water as a Function of Temperature and PressureIonization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water at Saturated Vapor PressureElectrical Conductivity of WaterPermittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various FrequenciesProperties of Ice and Supercooled WaterVapor Pressure of IceMelting Point of Ice as a Function of PressureIndex of Refraction of WaterSection 6: Properties of PolymersIntroductionAbbreviations Used in Polymer Science and TechnologyPhysical Properties of Selected PolymersSolvents for Common PolymersGlass Transition Temperatures for Selected PolymersDielectric Constant of Selected PolymersPressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Polymer MeltsVapor Pressures (Solvent Activities) for Binary Polymer SolutionsSolubility Parameters of Selected PolymersSection 7: Properties of Bio-Medical Compounds and SubstancesIntroductionProperties of Amino AcidsStructures of Common Amino AcidsProperties of Purine and Pyrimidine BasesThe Genetic CodeProperties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl EstersComposition and Properties of Common Oils and FatsCarbohydrate Names and SymbolsStandard Transformed Gibbs Energies of Formation for Biochemical ReactantsApparent Equilibrium Constants for Enzyme-Catalyzed ReactionsApparent Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Protein-Ligand Binding ReactionsThermodynamic Quantities for the Ionization Reactions of Buffers in WaterBiological BuffersTypical pH Values of Biological Materials and FoodsProperties and Functions of Common DrugsProperties of Controlled SubstancesSection 8: Chemical Structure, Bonding, and Molecular Spectroscopy DataIntroductionStructure of Free Molecules in the Gas PhaseCharacteristic Bond Lengths in Free MoleculesDipole MomentsHindered Internal RotationBond Dissociation EnergiesElectronegativityForce Constants for Bond StretchingFundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small MoleculesSpectroscopic Constants of Diatomic MoleculesPolarizabilities of MoleculesIonization Energies of Gas-Phase MoleculesElectron Affinities of MoleculesPart 2 Data for the Practice of Chemistry and PhysicsSection 9: Physical Chemistry DataIntroductionCODATA Key Values for ThermodynamicsStandard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical SubstancesThermodynamic Properties as a Function of TemperatureThermodynamic Properties of Aqueous IonsProton AffinitiesHeat of CombustionHeat Capacity of Selected SolidsElectrical Conductivity of Aqueous SolutionsMolar Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HIMolar Electrical Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous SolutionIonic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite DilutionElectrochemical SeriesActivity Coefficients of Acids, Bases, and SaltsMean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of ConcentrationEnthalpy of Dilution of AcidsEnthalpy of Solution of ElectrolytesConcentrative Properties of Aqueous SolutionsEbullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point ElevationCryoscopic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point DepressionFreezing Point Lowering by Electrolytes in Aqueous SolutionAzeotropic Data for Binary MixturesSection 10: Environmental Chemistry DataIntroductionChemical Reaction Rate Constants for Atmospheric StudiesProperties of RefrigerantsGlobal Warming Potential of Greenhouse GasesAtmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2022Aqueous Solubility and Henry's Law Constants of Organic CompoundsProperties of SeawaterSolubility of Hydrocarbons in SeawaterOctanol-Water Partition CoefficientsGlobal Temperature Trend, 1880-2022Solar Irradiance at the EarthGeographical and Seasonal Variations in Solar RadiationInfrared Absorption by the Earth's AtmosphereU.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976)Section 11: Solid-State Chemistry and Physics DataIntroductionTechniques for Materials CharacterizationSymmetry of CrystalsIonic Radii in CrystalsThe Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice EnergyElastic Constants of Single CrystalsPolarizability of Atoms and Ions in SolidsElectrical Resistivity of Binary AlloysElectrical Resistivity of Graphite MaterialsCurie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric CrystalsProperties of Antiferroelectric CrystalsProperties of SuperconductorsHigh-Temperature SuperconductorsOrganic SuperconductorsProperties of SemiconductorsSelected Properties of Semiconductor Solid SolutionsProperties of Organic SemiconductorsDiffusion Data for SemiconductorsProperties of Magnetic MaterialsOrganic MagnetsProperties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic TemperaturesThermoelectric Properties of Metals and SemiconductorsThermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of TemperatureFermi Energy and Related Properties of Metals Secondary Electron EmissionElectron Inelastic Mean Free PathsElectron Stopping PowersAttenuation Coefficients for High-Energy Electromagnetic RadiationThermal Conductivity of Crystalline DielectricsThermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating MaterialsSection 12: Industrial Chemistry DataIntroductionThermophysical Properties of AirThermophysical Properties of FluidsThermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at SaturationVapor Pressure of Compounds and ElementsVapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 KVapor Pressure of Saturated Salt SolutionsEnthalpy of VaporizationEnthalpy of FusionVirial Coefficients of Selected GasesCompressibility and Expansion Coefficients of LiquidsTemperature and Pressure Dependence of Liquid DensityProperties of Cryogenic FluidsProperties of Liquid HeliumProperties of Ionic LiquidsEnergy Content of FuelsSurface Tension of Common LiquidsSurface Tension of Aqueous MixturesSurface Active Chemicals (Surfactants)Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of LiquidsPermittivity (Dielectric Constant) of GasesViscosity of GasesViscosity of LiquidsThermal Conductivity of Gases and RefrigerantsThermal Conductivity of LiquidsInfluence of Pressure on Freezing PointsSublimation Pressure of SolidsSolubility of Selected Gases in WaterSolubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and PressuresSolubility of Organic Compounds in Pressurized Hot WaterDiffusion in GasesDiffusion of Gases in WaterDiffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite DilutionMean Free Path and Related Properties of GasesIndex of Refraction of AirIndex of Refraction of GasesIndex of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration PurposesSection 13: Astrophysics, Earth Sciences, and Physics DataIntroductionAstronomical ConstantsProperties of the Solar SystemInterstellar MoleculesMass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the EarthDensity, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the EarthAcceleration Due to GravityOcean Pressure as a Function of Depth and LatitudeSummary Tables of Particle PropertiesBlackbody RadiationClassification of Electromagnetic RadiationPart 3 Data for Modern Chemical LaboratoriesSection 14: Analytical Chemistry DataIntroductionAbbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical ChemistryBasic Instrumental Techniques of Analytical ChemistryAnalytical Standardization and CalibrationFigures of MeritMass- and Volume-Based Concentration UnitsDetection of Outliers in MeasurementsProperties of Carrier Gases for Gas ChromatographyCommon Symbols Used in Gas and Liquid Chromatographic Schematic DiagramsStandard Fittings for Compressed Gas CylindersStationary Phases for Porous-Layer Open Tubular ColumnsCoolants for CryotrappingProperties of Common Cross-Linked Silicone Stationary PhasesDetectors for Gas ChromatographyVarieties of Hyphenated Gas Chromatography with Mass SpectrometryGas Chromatographic Retention IndicesPressure Drop in Open Tubular Gas Chromatographic ColumnsPhase Ratios for Capillary ColumnsMinimum Recommended Injector Split Ratios for Capillary ColumnsEluotropic Values of Solvents on Octadecylsilane and OctylsilaneSolid-Phase Micro-extraction SorbentsInstability of HPLC SolventsFluorescence Labeling Reagents Used Pre-Column in HPLCDetectors for Liquid ChromatographySolvents for Ultraviolet SpectrophotometryCorrelation Table for Ultraviolet Active FunctionalitiesMiddle-Range Infrared Absorption Correlation ChartsCommon Spurious Infrared Absorption BandsRaman Band FrequenciesNuclear Spins, Moments, and Other Data Related to NMR SpectroscopyProperties of Important NMR NucleiProton NMR Absorption of Major Chemical FamiliesProton NMR Correlation Chart for Major Organic Functional GroupsProton NMR Shifts of Common Organic LiquidsProton Chemical Shifts of Contaminants in Deuterated Solvents13C-NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups 13C-NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Organic Solvents15N-NMR Chemical Shifts of Major Chemical FamiliesNatural Abundance of Isotopes Important in Mass SpectrometryCommon Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Organic Compound FamiliesCommon Mass Spectral Fragments LostMajor Reference Masses in the Spectrum of Heptacosafluorotributylamine (Perfluorotributylamine)Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic LiquidsCommon Spurious Signals Observed in Mass SpectrometersChlorine-Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities in Mass Spectral PatternsStandards for Laboratory WeightsReduction of Weighings in Air to VacuoIndicators for Acids and BasesPreparation of Special Analytical ReagentsOrganic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic IonsSection 15: Chemical and Laboratory Safety DataIntroductionChemical SafetyAbbreviations Used in the Assessment and Presentation of Laboratory HazardsIncompatible ChemicalsExplosion (Shock) HazardsWater-Reactive ChemicalsTesting Requirements for Peroxidizable CompoundsTests for the Presence of PeroxidesPyrophoric Compounds - Compounds That Are Reactive with AirFlammability of Common Solvents and Other Chemical SubstancesTypes and Uses of Fire ExtinguishersMaterials Compatible with and Resistant to 72 Percent Perchloric AcidSelection of Laboratory GlovesSelection of Protective Laboratory GarmentsSelection of Respirator Cartridges and FiltersProtective Clothing LevelsSelection of Hearing Protection DevicesChemical Fume Hoods and Biological Safety CabinetsGas Cylinder Safety and Stamped MarkingsCompressed Air SafetySafety in the Use of CryogensPlug and Outlet Configurations for Common Laboratory DevicesElectrical Shock HazardsLadder Safety in LaboratoriesMagnetic Field SafetyNanomaterial Safety GuidelinesThreshold Limits for Airborne ContaminantsChemical CarcinogensLaser Hazards in the LaboratoryGeneral Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation for Practical Application of Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety UnitsRelative Dose Ranges from Ionizing RadiationAnnual Limits on Intakes of RadionuclidesSection 16: Practical Laboratory DataIntroductionLaboratory Solvents and Other Liquid ReagentsDensity of Solvents as a Function of TemperaturepH Scale for Aqueous SolutionsBuffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25 °CConstant Humidity SolutionsStandard Salt Solutions for Humidity CalibrationLow-Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant TemperatureMetals and Alloys with Low-Melting TemperatureStandard KCl Solutions for Calibrating Electrical Conductivity CellsCharacteristics of Particles and Particle DispersoidsInternational Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)Reference Points on the ITS-90 Temperature ScaleStandard ITS-90 Thermocouple TablesPart 4 Reference Tables and IndicesSection 17: Units, Constants, and Conversion FactorsCODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2018International System of Units (SI)Expression of Uncertainty of MeasurementsDescriptive Terms for SolubilityUnits for Magnetic PropertiesConversion Factors for Energy UnitsConversion Factors for Pressure UnitsUnits of Measure for Vacuum SystemsValues of the Gas Constant in Different Unit SystemsConversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity UnitsSection 18: Nomenclature, Terminology, and SymbolsNomenclature for Chemical CompoundsRepresentation of Chemical Structures with the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI)Definition of AmbientSymbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical QuantitiesScientific Abbreviations, Acronyms, and SymbolsThermodynamic Functions and RelationsSection 19: Covers and IndicesPeriodic Table of the ElementsStandard Atomic Weights in Atomic Order NumberFundamental Physical Constants - Frequently Used Constants
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Biographical note

Dr. John Rumble has long been a leader in developing and providing access to databases in numerous S&T disciplines. From 1980 through 2004, he worked in the NIST Standard Reference Data Program and later was responsible for NIST measurement services programs. From 2004 to 2011, He was Executive Vice President of Information International Associates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Today he is President of R&R Data Services in Gaithersburg MD.

Rumble has served on numerous national and international STI policy committees and review panels and was a member of the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Rumble was among the first to build online, PC, and Internet/web-based factual databases for scientific and technical (S&T) data. While at NIST, he sponsored data projects with scientists in China, Japan, England, France, Germany, and Russia. During that time, he also worked with many industry organizations and professional societies to develop industry-related data programs in materials science and chemistry, as well as standards for S&T data exchange.

Dr. Rumble has considerable experience in chemistry, physics, materials science, nanomaterials, and informatics and data science experience and has published widely in all these areas. Rumble received a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from Indiana University.

In 1998-2002, Rumble served as President of CODATA, the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology. Dr. Rumble is Fellow of IUPAC, AAAS, APS, ASTM International, ASM International, and IAFoST, as well as a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Metrology. He was awarded the CODATA 2006 Prize for outstanding achievements in S&T data. He has served two terms as Editor-in-Chief of the CODATA Data Science Journal.

During the last five years, Dr. Rumble has led a multi-disciplinary effort to develop a uniform system for describing nanomaterials. This work has been done under the auspices of CODATA International and the International Council for Science. Rumble has put together a unique group of international union representatives from the diverse scientific and technical fields interested in nanotechnology, including chemistry, physics, materials science, food science and technology, nutrition science, toxicology, and more. In addition, he has reached out to more general audiences in these fields through international workshops, symposia at union conferences, and liaisons with U.S. and European Nanosafety projects. This work is available at www.codata.org/nanomaterials

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