This book includes the synthesis, analysis and characterization of nanomaterials that are an important ingredient in nanotechnologies. Nanomaterials contain nanoparticles, smaller than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. Nanomaterials are coming into use in health care, electronics, cosmetics and other areas. Their physical and chemical properties differ from those of bulk materials. This needs to cover health risks to workers and potential risks to environment. This is currently done on a case-by-case basis, but risk assessment methods need to be kept up to date as the use of nanomaterials expands, especially as they find their way into consumer products. This book covers the basics to advanced applications of nanomaterials and provides a useful resource for researchers and professionals in the field. ​
Les mer
This book includes the synthesis, analysis and characterization of nanomaterials that are an important ingredient in nanotechnologies. This is currently done on a case-by-case basis, but risk assessment methods need to be kept up to date as the use of nanomaterials expands, especially as they find their way into consumer products.
Les mer
Chapter 1                                                                                                      PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS                                                                 1.1  Introduction                                                                                                          1.1.1 What are nanomaterials?                                                                                              1.1.2  Where are nanomaterials found?                                                                      1.2 Advances in nanomaterials                                                                                              1.3 Classification of nanomaterials                                                                                         1.4 Why are nanomaterials important?                                                                                 1.5 Types of nanomaterials                                                                                                    1.6  The nanoscience and nanotechnology                                                     1.6.1 Characteristics of nanomaterials                                                        1.7 Nano-effect                                                                                     1.7.1 Exceptional optical properties                                                                           1.7.2 Exceptional thermal properties                                                                         1.7.3 Exceptional magnetic properties                                   1.7.4 Exceptional mechanical properties                                                                               1.7.5 Exceptional electrical properties                                                                      1.7.6 Natural nano-effect                                                                                                           1.8 Physical principles of nano-effect                                                                       1.8.1 Discontinuity of electron levels                                                                                           1.8.2 Kubo theory                                                                                                                      1.8.3 Small size effect                                                                                                                  1.8.4 Surface effect                                                                                                                    1.8.5 Dielectric confinement effect                                                                                             Problems                                                                                                                                   Chapter 2                                                                                                                              Synthesis of nanomaterials                                                                               2.1              Introduction                                                                                                                 2.1.1 Preparation of nanoparticles                                                                                         2.2 Icroemulsion-based methods                                                                                            2.3 Carbon fullerenes                                                                                                             2.4 Synthesis of nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes                                                                       2.4.1 rods                                                                                                                                Problems                                                                                                                                       Chapter 3 Characterization and analysis of nanomaterials                        3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      3.2 Detection and analysis of particle size                                                                           3.3  Detection and analysis of the electrical properties                                                        3.4 Detection and analysis of magnetic properties                                                              3.5 Detection and analysis of the mechanical properties                                                    3.6 Detection and analysis of thermal properties                                                                 3.7 Detection and analysis of optical properties                                                                  3.8 Scanning probe microscopy                                                                                            3.9 Principles of scanning tunneling microscopy                                                    3.9.1 Operating mode of STM                                                                                                    3.9.2 STM application: atomic manipulation                                                                    3.9.3 Advantages of STM                                                                                                            3.10 Atomic force microscopy                                                                                                3.10.1 Principle of AFM                                                                                                  3.10.2 Comparison of the AFM scanning modes                                                              3.10.3 Application examples of AFM                                                                                            Problems                                                                                                                                     Chapter 4                                                                                                                  Mechanical and magnetic properties of nanomaterials            4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      4.2 Mechanical behavior                                                                                                        4.2.1 Elastic properties of nanocrystalline metals                                                                 4.2.2 Hardness, yield and ultimate strengths                                                  4.2.3 Mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures                                        4.2.4 Strength of amorphous alloys containing nanoscale particles                                   4.2.5 Deformation behavior of nanostructured alloys                                                          4.3 Structure and soft magnetic properties                                                                         4.4 Effect of grain-size distribution and Curie temperature of intergranular amorphous phase on soft magnetic properties                                                                                                   4.5 Magnetic properties                                                                                 Problems                                                                                                                                       CHAPTER 5                                                                                                                              Electrical and optical properties of nanomaterials                    5.1             Introduction                                                                                                                 5.2             Metals                                                                                                                         5.2.1 Quantum transport of electrons                                                                                                5.2.2 Electrical conductivity                                                                                           Atomic structure and mechanical properties                                                             5.2.2. Electrical conductance of nanowires                                                                            5.2.3 Surface plasmons                                                                                                  Dipole plasmon resonances                                                                               Quadrupole plasmon resonances                                                                      Extinction for silver spheres                                                                              Electromagnetic fields for spherical particles                                                            5.3             Semiconductor                                                                                                            5.3.1 Band gap modification                                                                                                   5.3.2 Quantum size effects                                                                                                     5.3.3 Quantization and energy level spacing                                                                          5.3.4 Optical properties                                                                                                          Problems                                                                                                                                       CHAPTER 6                                                                                                                              Nanodevices and nanostructures                                                                  6.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      6.2 General scheme of nanodevices                                                                                      6.3 Nanocomponents                                                                                                                         6.3.1 DNA                                                                                                                    6.3.2 Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes                                                                                  6.4 Nanoelectronics                                                                                                    6.5 Nanostructured materials                                                                                                6.5.1 Nanoparticle properties                                                                                                6.5.2 Nanoalloys                                                                                                                     6.6     Prospects for future modeling                                                             Problems                                                                                                                                     CHAPTER 7                                                                                                                              CARBON NANOTUBES                                                                                               7.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      7.1.1 Structures of carbon allotropes                                                                       7.1.2 Single-layer graphite material (graphene)                                                                      7.2                 Types and nature of CNTs                                                                                         7.2.1 Types of CNTs                                                                                                         7.2.2        Characteristics of CNTs                                                                                         Mechanical properties                                                                                      Electrical characteristics                                                                                   Thermal properties                                                                                            Superconducting phenomenon of CNTs                                                           Chemical properties                                                                                                   7.3 Electronic structure of CNTs                                                                                             7.3.1 π-electron orbital and the energy of the conjugated molecule in planar structure    7.3.2 Electronic structure of graphite                                                                        7.4 Preparation of CNTs                                                                                                         7.5 Applications of CNTs                                                                                                       7.5.1 CNT electronics                                                                                                          The limits of microelectronics technology and the emergence of nanoelectronics            7.6 Single-electron transistor                                                                                                 7.7 CNT electronics                                                                                                                7.7.1 Quantum wire                                                                                                                    7.7.2 CNT-based junction                                                                                                             7.7.3 SET with CNTs                                                                                                                    7.7.4 CNT-based FET                                                                                                                     7.7.5 Complementary nongate (Inverter) circuit with CNTs                                                           7.8 Other applications of CNTs                                                                                                    7.8.1 Nano test tubes                                                                                                             7.8.2 Nanobalance                                                                                                                  7.8.3 Nanomolds                                                                                                                     7.8.4 CNTs: Field emission cathode materials                                                            7.8.5 Application of CNTs in hydrogen storage                                                                     7.8.6 High-energy microbattery                                                                                                 7.8.7 High-energy capacitor                                                                                                   7.8.8 Chip thermal/heat protection                                                                                        7.8.9 Nanoreactor                                                                                                                   7.8.10 Nanocomposite materials                                                                                           Problems                                                                                                                                     CHAPTER 8                                                                                                                              SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS                                                            8.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      8.2  The physical basis of semiconductor QDs                                                                     8.2.1 Quantum confinement effect                                                                                               8.2.2          Excitons and luminescence                                                                                     The concept of excitons                                                                        Energy band structure of excitons                                                                    Calculations of the exciton binding energy                                                    8.3 Preparation of semiconductor QDs                                                                                   8.4 Laser devices based on QDs                                                                               8.5  Single-photon source                                                                                                       Problems                                                                                                                           CHAPTER 9                  Superconductivity                                                                                                            9.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      9.2 The Physical principles of superconductivity                                                                 9.3  The classification of superconductors                                                                               9.3.1 Low-temperature superconductors                                                                                       9.3.2 High-temperature superconductors                                                                                      9.3.3 Other novel superconductors                                                                                                9.4 Nanosuperconductors                                                                                                          9.4.1 Incredible magnetic nanoclusters                                                                                 9.4.2 Quantum fluctuations and strong correlation in nanowires                                          9.4.3 Ultrathin film                                                                                                                    9.4.4 Nanosuperconductors and hybrid structures                                                               9.4.5 Links between superconductors and nanostructure                                       9.5 Application of nanosuperconductors                                                                                9.5.1 Quantum computers                                                                                                         9.5.2 Nanosuperconductor quantum bits                                                                                                                                                                       Problems                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER 10                                                                                                                Multi-application of nanomaterials                                                 10.1 Introduction                                                                                                                    10.2 Amorphous silicon/oxide superlattice                                                                           10.3 Single-electron transistor                                                                        10.4 Quantum dot laser                                                                                                         10.5 Epilogue                                                                                                                          10.6 Chemical and biological sensors                                                                                     10.7 Optical sensors                                                                                                                10.8 Catalysis                                                                                                                          10.9 Future issues                                                                                      Problems                                                                                                                     Refernces                                                                                                     Index
Les mer
This book includes the synthesis, analysis and characterization of nanomaterials that are an important ingredient in nanotechnologies. Nanomaterials contain nanoparticles, smaller than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. Nanomaterials are coming into use in health care, electronics, cosmetics and other areas. Their physical and chemical properties differ from those of bulk materials. This needs to cover health risks to workers and potential risks to environment. This is currently done on a case-by-case basis, but risk assessment methods need to be kept up to date as the use of nanomaterials expands, especially as they find their way into consumer products. This book covers the basics to advanced applications of nanomaterials and provides a useful resource for researchers and professionals in the field.
Les mer
Presents the basics and advanced applications of nanomaterials in various fieldsDiscusses the health and environmental risks of nanomaterials and the ways to address themIs useful resources for students, researchers, and professionals in the area on nanomaterials
Les mer


Springer Verlag, Singapore
418 gr
235 mm
155 mm
Research, P, 06
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Biographical note

Dr. Yarub Al-Douri is a Professor of Nanotechnology at the American University of Iraq, Sulaimani and is an Adjunct Professor at Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey. He is Associate Editor of Nano-Micro Letters (Q1), Editor-in-Chief of Experimental and Theoretical NANOTECHNOLOYG, and Editor-in-Chief of World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering. Al-Douri has more than 750 publications to his credit. His research interests are in the areas of nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, optics, semiconductors, and renewable energy.