Detailed Table of Contents for 4/ePART ONE Introducing Social PsychologyMODULE 1 Doing Social Psychology FORMING AND TESTING THEORIES CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH: DETECTING NATURAL ASSOCIATIONS Correlation Versus Causation EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: SEARCHING FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT Control: Manipulating VariablesRandom Assignment: The Great EqualizerThe Ethics of Experimentation GENERALIZING FROM LABORATORY TO LIFEMODULE 2 Did You Know It All Along?PART TWO Social ThinkingMODULE 3 Self-Concept: Who Am I? AT THE CENTER OF OUR WORLDS: OUR SENSE OF SELF SELF AND CULTURE SELF-KNOWLEDGE Explaining Our BehaviorPredicting Our BehaviorPredicting Our FeelingsThe Wisdom and Illusions of Self-AnalysisMODULE 4 Self-Serving Bias EXPLAINING POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EVENTS CAN WE ALL BE BETTER THAN AVERAGE? Focus on self-serving bias-How do I love me? Let me count the ways UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM FALSE CONSENSUS AND UNIQUENESS SELF-ESTEEM MOTIVATION REFLECTIONS ON SELF-SERVING BIAS The Self-Serving Bias as AdaptiveThe Self-Serving Bias as MaladaptiveMODULE 5 The Power of Positive Thinking LOCUS OF CONTROL LEARNED HELPLESSNESS VERSUS SELF-DETERMINATION REFLECTIONS ON SELF-EFFICACY The Power of Positive ThinkingThe Dark Side of Self-EsteemMODULE 6 The Fundamental Attribution Error THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR IN EVERYDAY LIFE WHY DO WE MAKE THE ATTRIBUTION ERROR? Perspective and Situational AwarenessCultural Differences HOW FUNDAMENTAL IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR?MODULE 7 The Powers and Perils of Intuition THE POWERS OF INTUITION THE LIMITS OF INTUITION WE OVERESTIMATE THE ACCURACY OF OUR JUDGMENTS Remedies for Overconfidence CONSTRUCTING MEMORIES Reconstructing Our Past AttitudesReconstructing Past BehaviorMODULE 8 Reasons for Unreason OUR PRECONCEPTIONS CONTROL OUR INTERPRETATIONS WE ARE MORE SWAYED BY MEMORABLE EVENTS THAN BY FACTS WE MISPERCEIVE CORRELATION AND CONTROL Illusory CorrelationIllusion of Control OUR BELIEFS CAN GENERATE THEIR OWN CONFIRMATION Do Teacher Expectations Affect Student Performance?Do We Get What We Expect From Others? CONCLUSIONSMODULE 9 Behavior and Belief DO ATTITUDES INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR? DOES BEHAVIOR INFLUENCE ATTITUDES? Role-PlayingSaying Becomes BelievingThe Foot-in-the-Door PhenomenonEvil Acts and AttitudesInterracial Behavior and Racial Attitudes BRAINWASHING WHY DOES BEHAVIOR AFFECT OUR ATTITUDES?MODULE 10 Clinical Intuition ILLUSORY CORRELATIONS HINDSIGHT SELF-CONFIRMING DIAGNOSES CLINICAL VERSUS STATISTICAL PREDICTION IMPLICATIONSMODULE 11 Clinical Therapy: The Powers of Social Cognition SOCIAL COGNITION AND DEPRESSION Distortion or Realism?Is Negative Thinking a Cause or a Result of Depression? SOCIAL COGNITION AND LONELINESS SOCIAL COGNITION AND ANXIETY SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TREATMENT Inducing Internal Change Through External BehaviorBreaking Vicious CyclesPART THREE Social InfluenceMODULE 12 Human Nature and Cultural Diversity EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR CULTURE AND BEHAVIOR Cultural Diversity Cultural SimilarityMODULE 13 Gender, Genes, and Culture GENDER DIFFERENCES Independence Versus Connectedness SOCIAL DOMINANCE AggressionSexuality EVOLUTION AND GENDER: DOING WHAT COMES NATURALLY? Gender and Mating PreferencesGender and Hormones REFLECTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY CULTURE AND GENDER Gender Roles Vary With Culture and Time CONCLUSIONS: BIOLOGY AND CULTUREMODULE 14 How Nice People Get Corrupted ASCH'S STUDIES OF CONFORMITY MILGRAM'S OBEDIENCE EXPERIMENTS What Breeds Obedience?Institutional Authority REFLECTIONS ON THE CLASSIC STUDIES Behavior and AttitudesThe Power of the SituationThe Fundamental Attribution ErrorMODULE 15 Two Routes to Persuasion THE TWO ROUTES THE ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION Who Says? The CommunicatorWhat is Said? The Message ContentTo Whom Is It Said? THE TWO ROUTES TO PERSUASION IN THERAPYMODULE 16 Indoctrination and Inoculation CULT INDOCTRINATION Attitudes Follow BehaviorPersuasive ElementsGroup EffectsRESISTING PERSUASIONStimulate CommitmentReal-Life Applications: Inoculation ProgramsImplicationsMODULE 17 The Mere Presence of Others THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS CROWDING: THE PRESENCE OF MANY OTHERS WHY ARE WE AROUSED IN THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS? Evaluation ApprehensionDriven by DistractionMere PresenceMODULE 18 Many Hands Make Diminished Responsibility MANY HANDS MAKE LIGHT WORK SOCIAL LOAFING IN EVERYDAY LIFEMODULE 19 Doing Together What We Would Never Do Alone DEINDIVIDUATION Group SizePhysical AnonymityArousing and Distracting Activities DIMINISHED SELF-AWARENESSMODULE 20 How Groups Intensify Decisions THE CASE OF THE "RISKY SHIFT" DO GROUPS INTENSIFY OPINIONS Group Polarization Experiments Group Polarization in Everyday Life EXPLAINING GROUP POLARIZATION Informational InfluenceNormative Influence GROUPTHINK SYMPTOMS OF GROUPTHINK Groupthink in ActionPreventing GroupthinkMODULE 21 Power to the Person INTERACTING PERSONS AND SITUATIONS RESISTING SOCIAL PRESSURE ReactanceAsserting Uniqueness MINORITY INFLUENCE ConsistencySelf-ConfidenceDefections From the Majority IS LEADERSHIP MINORITY INFLUENCE?PART FOUR Social RelationsMODULE 22 The Dislike of Diversity WHAT IS PREJUDICE? HOW PERVASIVE IS PREJUDICE? Racial PrejudiceGender PrejudiceMODULE 23 The Roots of Prejudice SOCIAL SOURCES OF PREJUDICE Unequal StatusDiscrimination's Impact: The Self-Fulfilling ProphecyStereotype Threat SOCIAL IDENTITY Ingroup BiasConformity EMOTIONAL SOURCES OF PREJUDICE Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat TheoryPersonality Dynamics COGNITIVE SOURCES OF PREJUDICECategorizationDistinctivenessAttribution: Is It a Just World?MODULE 24 The Nature and Nurture of Aggression THEORIES OF AGGRESSION Is Aggression an Instinct?Neural InfluencesGenetic InfluencesBlood Chemistry PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON AGGRESSION Frustration and AggressionThe Learning of AggressionEnvironmental Influences REDUCING AGGRESSION Catharsis?A Social Learning ApproachMODULE 25 Does the Media Influence Social Behavior? PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE Distorted Perceptions of Sexual RealityAggression Against Women TELEVISION Television's Effects on Behavior MEDIA INFLUENCES: VIDEO GAMES The Games Kids PlayEffects of the Games Kids PlayMODULE 26 Who Likes Whom? PROXIMITY InteractionAnticipation of InteractionMere ExposureFocus on-liking things associated with oneself PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESSA ttractiveness and DatingThe Matching PhenomenonThe Physical-Attractiveness StereotypeWho Is Attractive? SIMILARITY VERSUS CONPLEMENTARITY Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?Do Opposites Attract? LIKING THOSE WHO LIKE US Self-Esteem and Attraction OUR NEED TO BELONGMODULE 27 The Ups and Downs of Love PASSIONATE LOVE A Theory of Passionate LoveVariations in Love COMPANIONATE LOVE MAINTAINING CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS EquitySelf-Disclosure ENDING RELATIONSHIPS Who Divorces?The Detachment ProcessMODULE 28 Causes of Conflict SOCIAL DILEMMAS The Prisoners' DilemmaThe Tragedy of the CommonsResolving Social Dilemmas COMPETITION PERCEIVED INJUSTICE MISPERCEPTION Mirror-Image PerceptionsShifting PerceptionsMODULE 29 Blessed Are the Peacemakers CONTACT Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes?When Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes? COOPERATION Common External ThreatsSuperordinate Goals Cooperative Learning COMMUNICATION BargainingMediationArbitration CONCILIATIONMODULE 30 When Do People Help? WHY DO PEOPLE HELP? WHEN DO PEOPLE HELP? NUMBER OF BYSTANDERS NoticingInterpretingAssuming ResponsibilityMODULE 31 The Social Psychology of Sustainability ENABLING SUSTAINABILITY Increasing Efficiency and ProductivityReducing Consumption THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY O F MATERIALISM AND WEALTH Increased MaterialismWealth and Well-BeingWhy Materialism Fails to Satisfy TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY AND SURVIVAL
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David Myers is the John Dirk Werkman Professor of Psychology at Hope College where he has taught for the past 30 years. David Myers' love of teaching psychology has been rewarded by students on many occasions with numerous Outstanding Professor awards. An award-winning researcher, Dr. Myers received the Gordon Allport Prize from Division 9 of the American Psychological Association for his work on group polarization. His scientific articles have appeared in more than two dozen journals, including Science, American Scientist, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Science. He has served his discipline as consulting editor to the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.